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Steam Locomotives of the Southern Railway (SOU)[Inhalt]
Atlanta & Charlotte Air Line “Talullah”
Southern Railway (USA) No. 1509 “Maud”
United States | 1879 | only one produced
Stephen Phillips

The Forney “Tallulah”, later known as the “Maud”, is today the oldest surviving locomotive of the Southern Railway. Built for the Atlanta & Charlotte Air Line in 1879, she was most likely used on commuter trains, although few records exist from this period. She finally came to the Southern in 1894 via the Richmond and Danville Railroad.

Exact records are only existing since 1903, when she was given the number 1509 as part of a rebuild and was called “Maud” by the staff. She was now used as a switcher, which was probably also the case in the years before. She was retired in 1950 and saved from the scrapyard due to her popularity with employees. Today she resides disassembled at the South Eastern Railroad Museum in Duluth, Georgia, waiting to be reassembled and restored.

General
Built1879
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config0-4-4T (Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase21 ft 0 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft
Service weight110,900 lbs
Water capacity1,000 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power250 hp (186 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Starting effort14,144 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area13.9 sq ft
Firebox area82 sq ft
Tube heating area695 sq ft
Evaporative heating area777 sq ft
Total heating area777 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 09/2023
Southern Railway (USA) classes K and Ks
United States | 1903 | 585 produced
No. 849
No. 849
collection Rich Driver

The class K designated a class of standard Consolidations of the Southern, with over 500 built beginning in 1903. The first 128 locomotives had a boiler with 437 smoke tubes, the later ones only had 403 tubes. In addition to the Southern, the subsidiaries also received a three-digit number of the second version. From 1921, a total of 393 units were equipped with a superheater, the valve chest was also replaced and the class designation was changed to “Ks”. Depending on whether the individual locomotives had been rebuilt, they were taken out of service towards the end of the 1930s or even survived the early 1950s.

Variantfirst variantsecond variantKs - 22½ inches
General
Built1903-19041905-1906from 1921
ManufacturerALCO, BaldwinBaldwinSouthern
Axle config2-8-0 (Consolidation) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft 3 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft
Total wheelbase54 ft 11 1/2 in56 ft 9 in
Service weight199,875 lbs199,910 lbs213,000 lbs
Adhesive weight176,750 lbs180,610 lbs189,000 lbs
Total weight319,875 lbs346,910 lbs360,000 lbs
Axle load44,188 lbs45,153 lbs46,945 lbs
Water capacity8,000 us gal7,500 us gal
Fuel capacity25,000 lbs (coal)24,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,500 hp (1,119 kW)1,550 hp (1,156 kW)1,700 hp (1,268 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph23 mph22 mph
Starting effort44,079 lbf43,305 lbf48,693 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter56 in57 in
Boiler pressure200 psi215 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 22 x 30 intwo, 22 1/2 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area53 sq ft54 sq ft53.5 sq ft
Firebox area143 sq ft237 sq ft232 sq ft
Tube heating area3,375 sq ft3,065 sq ft2,094 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,518 sq ft3,302 sq ft2,326 sq ft
Superheater area510 sq ft
Total heating area3,518 sq ft3,302 sq ft2,836 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 07/2023
Southern Railway (USA) class Ls-2
United States | 1926 | 9 produced
No. 4050 in August 1948 in Knoxville, Tennessee
No. 4050 in August 1948 in Knoxville, Tennessee
collection Harold K. Vollrath

Based on the Ls-1 class Mallets, the Southern had the No. 4050 built in 1926 with simple expansion and a slightly smaller boiler. Since this proved its worth, four Ls-1 were also converted to simple expansion and in 1928 a further eight locomotives were built again with a larger boiler. This was more efficient mainly because of the thermic syphons. They also received larger tenders and now formed the Ls-2 class. They were the Southern's most powerful locomotives and were also used on the almost five percent steep Saluda Grade.

Variant40504051-4058
General
Built19261928
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-8-2 (Mikado Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase56 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 5 in
Service weight448,000 lbs469,000 lbs
Adhesive weight390,000 lbs409,000 lbs
Total weight709,600 lbs660,400 lbs
Water capacity10,000 us gal14,000 us gal
Fuel capacity32,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,200 hp (2,386 kW)3,500 hp (2,610 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph22 mph
Starting effort99,396 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 23 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area83 sq ft82.8 sq ft
Firebox area335 sq ft436 sq ft
Tube heating area4,490 sq ft4,540 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,825 sq ft4,976 sq ft
Superheater area1,350 sq ft1,420 sq ft
Total heating area6,175 sq ft6,396 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 07/2023
Southern Railway (USA) class Ms
originally class K
United States | 1911 | 135 produced
No. 4501 in February 1972 in Norris Yard at Birmingham, Alabama
No. 4501 in February 1972 in Norris Yard at Birmingham, Alabama

The first Mikados that the Southern Railway procured were initially called class K and later renamed Ms. Between 1911 and 1914, a total of 135 units were delivered directly to the Southern by Baldwin and ALCO-Richmond. Together with the subsidiaries, the total number reached over 180, even if some locomotives there had differences.

The fireboxes of the locomotives were prepared directly by the manufacturers to accommodate arch tubes, but these were only installed later. Some were equipped with tractor tenders specifically for Saluda, the seven most successful of which were designated the Ms-2 class. The number 4501, which was used for special trips from 1966, is still operational today at the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum.

General
Built1911-1914
ManufacturerBaldwin, ALCO
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase34 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase67 ft 0 1/2 in
Service weight272,940 lbs
Adhesive weight215,700 lbs
Total weight425,940 lbs
Axle load54,940 lbs
Water capacity24,000 us gal
Fuel capacity8,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,200 hp (1,641 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Starting effort51,637 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 27 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area53.3 sq ft
Firebox area212 sq ft
Tube heating area3,019 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,231 sq ft
Superheater area699 sq ft
Total heating area3,930 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 02/2024
Southern Railway (USA) class Ms-2
United States | 1915 | 7 produced
southern.railfan.net

For the well-known Saluda grade of more than four percent, the Southern was looking for a locomotive with a particularly high tractive effort. This is where the idea came up of accommodating additional driven axles in the tender and thus using the tender as an additional adhesive weight. There were several designs, of which only the Ms-2 made it to seven.

As with all of these experimental machines, the Ms-2 was created from a conventional steam locomotive and the frame of another, older locomotive, on which a tender body was mounted. The modern class Ms Mikado was used as the locomotive, while the frame of the tender came from an older Consolidation. The five machines assembled in this way left the Southern Railway workshops in Spencer, North Carolina in 1915. A pipe went directly from the superheater exit into the tender, supplying steam to the rear engine when needed.

While the locomotive's coupling wheels were 63 inches, the tender's coupling wheels were only 50 inches, which must have led to an unusual exhaust noise. The tender's cylinders were bushed from the original 20 to 18 inches in diameter. The cylinders of the locomotive were also bushed from 27 to 26 inches to save steam. Compared to the original Ms, 1,400 instead of the previous 1,100 tons could now be towed on a gradient of 1.7 percent.

In addition to the Ms-2, other Mikados were built with a tender with a 2-6-0 wheel arrangement or locomotives with a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement with a tender with a 2-6-0 wheel arrangement. What they all had in common was the clearly decreasing tractive effort as the tender emptied. While tank locomotives still have a significant weight even with almost empty supplies, the empty weight of the tender was very low. In addition, the exhaust from the rear engine was blown into the air above the tender, which must have reduced the draft in the boiler. Just a few years later, the Ls-1 class Mallets took over the Saluda grade.

General
Built1915
ManufacturerSouthern Railway
Axle config2-8-2+2-8-0T (Duplex) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase34 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 6 in
Service weight502,940 lbs
Adhesive weight215,700 lbs
Axle load54,940 lbs
Water capacity7,500 us gal
Fuel capacity24,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,200 hp (1,641 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Starting effort47,883 lbf
Booster23,134 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area53.3 sq ft
Firebox area212 sq ft
Tube heating area3,019 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,231 sq ft
Superheater area699 sq ft
Total heating area3,930 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
duplex
powered tender
J. Hainen
last changed: 02/2024
Southern Railway (USA) class Ps-4
United States | 1923 | 64 produced
No. 1399 in June 1940 in Durham, North Carolina
No. 1399 in June 1940 in Durham, North Carolina
D.W. Eldridge / collection Taylor Rush

The Ps-4 was Southern's premier class of Pacifics and also one of the most famous passenger steam locomotives in the United States. It was based on the USRA Heavy Pacific but had some adjustments such as smaller drivers, a shorter boiler and depending on the batch a Worthington or Elasco feedwater heater. Even with the driver diameter of 73 inches, they could pull 14 cars at 80 mph (129 km/h).

In two batches, a total of 44 Ps-4s were delivered to the Southern, twelve to the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific and eight to the Alabama Great Southern. The second batch locomotives were initially painted in a special Virginia Green and Gold livery following President Fairfax Harrison's visit to Great Britain. Today only number 1401 remains, which is not operational.

Variant1923 variant1926 variant
General
Built1923-19251926-1928
ManufacturerALCO, Baldwin
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase36 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft
Service weight300,000 lbs304,000 lbs
Adhesive weight180,000 lbs
Total weight495,600 lbs565,600 lbs
Axle load60,000 lbs
Water capacity10,000 us gal14,000 us gal
Fuel capacity32,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,050 hp (2,274 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Top speed80 mph
Starting effort47,535 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 27 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area70.4 sq ft70.5 sq ft
Firebox area314 sq ft290 sq ft
Tube heating area3,405.3 sq ft3,400 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,719.3 sq ft3,690 sq ft
Superheater area860 sq ft905 sq ft
Total heating area4,579.3 sq ft4,595 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 11/2023
Richmond & Danville class 820
Southern Railway (USA) class F-1
United States | 1893 | 14 produced
No. 947 in Selma, Alabama
No. 947 in Selma, Alabama

In 1893 and 1894 the Richmond & Danville Railroad received a total of 14 ten-wheelers. Nine of these came from Baldwin and five from Richmond. The locomotives of the two manufacturers hardly differed, a small difference was the grate area of 27.9 and 28.2 square feet respectively.

One of the Baldwin locomotives had a Vauclain compound engine with four cylinders and a slightly higher boiler pressure. It was initially built with 14 and 24 inches diameter cylinders, but was rebuilt directly to 15 and 25 inches diameters.

When the Richmond & Danville was bought up by the Southern Railway in 1894, the locomotives were reclassified to the class F-1. Also in this class were other similar engines built directly for the Southern at about the same time. The scrapping of the 14 locomotives of the former class 820 took place between 1932 and 1939.

Variantsimplecompound
General
Built1893-18941893
ManufacturerBaldwin, RichmondBaldwin
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Fixed wheelbase12 ft
Total wheelbase52 ft 8 in
Service weight135,000 lbs
Adhesive weight107,000 lbs
Total weight221,100 lbs
Axle load35,667 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power700 hp (522 kW)750 hp (559 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph26 mph
Starting effort21,018 lbf18,409 lbf
with start valve22,091 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66 in
Boiler pressure170 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimplecompound
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 24 infour, HP: 15 x 24 in
and LP: 25 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area27.9 sq ft28.2 sq ft
Firebox area133 sq ft
Tube heating area1,677 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,810 sq ft
Total heating area1,810 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
Vauclain compound
last changed: 04/2023
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