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Steam Locomotives of the Southern Pacific (SP)[Inhalt]
Central Pacific No. 3 “C. P. Huntington”
United States | 1863 | only one produced
“C.P. Huntington” in the California State Railroad Museum
“C.P. Huntington” in the California State Railroad Museum
Joe Ross

During the American Civil War, when all the major locomotive works were busy producing for the war factions, the Central Pacific was in search of locomotives for its eastward expansion. Since no powerful tender locomotives could be found, the two small 4-2-4T tank locomotives with the names “C.P. Huntington” and “T.D. Judah” were purchased from Cooke. The former was named after Collis Potter Huntington, who was one of the “Big Four” and thus played a key role in the realization of the First Transcontinental Railroad.

After the procurement of more powerful locomotives, the No. 3 quickly lost importance due to its low power and small supplies and was used in front of construction trains. After being taken over by the Southern Pacific, it was assigned number 1 because of her importance and took on lighter duties in northern California. It was exhibited from 1888, but ended up in storage as early as 1891, only to be converted into a mobile weed incinerator ten years later.

A new life for the locomotive began in 1910 when it was restored to working order. In the decades that followed, it participated in many parades and exhibitions, including the opening of Union Station in Los Angeles. In 1964 it was sold to the State of California, which has exhibited it at the California State Railroad Museum since 1981 after two other locations in Sacramento. Since 1960, more than 400 scaled-down replicas have been manufactured in three feet gauge, which have been available with different types of drive for several years.

General
Built1863
ManufacturerCooke
Axle config4-2-4T (Huntington) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase21 ft 2 in
Service weight43,500 lbs
Adhesive weight15,980 lbs
Axle load15,980 lbs
Water capacity300 us gal
Fuel capacity840 lbs (wood)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power125 hp (93 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph
Starting effort3,571 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure125 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 x 15 in
Boiler
Grate area9.4 sq ft
Firebox area58 sq ft
Tube heating area361 sq ft
Evaporative heating area419 sq ft
Total heating area419 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 06/2022
Central Pacific No. 60 “Jupiter”
United States | 1868 | 5 produced
The replica at the Golden Spike National Historic Site at Promontory Summit in Utah
The replica at the Golden Spike National Historic Site at Promontory Summit in Utah
James St. John

When the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit in Utah on May 10, 1869, the Union Pacific's No. 119 and the Central Pacific's No. 60 “Jupiter” met. CPRR President Leland Stanford was transported by the “Jupiter” on the final leg to Promontory Summit, where he hammered in the Golden Spike.

The locomotive was built in Schenectady together with the identical numbers 61 to 63 and 84 and brought to San Francisco by ship. After the ceremony, she remained in mixed service for a long time and received, among other things, a new boiler and was rebuilt from wood to coal firing. She remained in use when the CPRR was taken over by the Southern Pacific and was scrapped in 1901. After the “Genoa” and “Inyo” of the Virginia & Truckee had to serve as “Jupiter” in fairs and movies, a replica was built in 1979. This can be seen today along with the 119 at Golden Spike National Historic Park.

General
Built1868
ManufacturerSchenectady
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Adhesive weight35,935 lbs
Axle load18,078 lbs
Fuel capacitywood
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power288 hp (215 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in
Boiler pressure120 psi
Expansion typesimple
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 11/2023
Central Pacific “Mastodon” and class GE
Southern Pacific class TW-4
United States | 1882 | 21 produced
Drawing of the locomotive in its original condition by Richard Ward
Drawing of the locomotive in its original condition by Richard Ward

Although the Baltimore and Ohio had procured a locomotive with a 4-8-0 wheel arrangement in 1855 with the “Centipede”, the “Mastodon” was the first successful locomotive with this wheel arrangement. Completed in 1882, it was the heaviest locomotive in the world at the time. Shortly after its roll-out, test runs were undertaken in the Sierra Nevada with the locomotive number 229, during which, as expected, it performed significantly better than the existing Americans and Ten-Wheelers. When the operation was taken over by the Southern Pacific, it was renumbered 2925.

The shape of the boiler had some special features, including a firebox with a lower ceiling in the area of the driver's cab, which was around 13 feet long. The cylinders each had four slide valves, two of which were operated by one valve gear each. This type of cylinders was also inherited by “El Gobernator”, the even larger locomotive with 4-10-0 wheel arrangement.

Built by the Central Pacific workshops, number 229 was later sent to the Cooke Locomotive and Machine Works in New Jersey to set up series production. Depending on the source, 20 or 25 other machines were made, which had slightly larger cylinders. The first locomotive was later modernized and converted to oil firing, which probably also applies to the production locomotives. They were scrapped in June 1935.

VariantNo. 229GE
General
Built18821882-1883
ManufacturerCentral PacificCooke
Axle config4-8-0 (Twelve-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft 11 1/2 in23 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 9 in13 ft 9 in
Total wheelbase53 ft 2 in47 ft 10 in
Service weight123,000 lbs144,100 lbs
Adhesive weight106,050 lbs114,000 lbs
Total weight186,000 lbs
Water capacity2,500 us gal
Fuel capacity10,700 lbs (wood)wood
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power600 hp (447 kW)750 hp (559 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph16 mph
Starting effort23,014 lbf29,143 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in56 in
Boiler pressure135 psi160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 19 x 30 intwo, 20 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area25.8 sq ft29.7 sq ft
Firebox area182 sq ft155 sq ft
Tube heating area1,173 sq ft1,883 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,355 sq ft2,038 sq ft
Total heating area1,355 sq ft2,038 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 03/2022
Central Pacific “El Gobernador”
United States | 1884 | only one produced
Henry B. Comstock, „The Iron Horse, An Illustrated History”

In search of an even more powerful locomotive than the GE class with the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement, A.J. Stevens expanded this with another driving axle. The only locomotive built with this wheel arrangement was christened “El Gobernator”.

In order to still be able to run through all curves, the last driving axle was mounted so that it could be moved sideways and the third and fourth were designed without wheel flanges. The cylinders were only 21 inches in diameter, but had an extremely long stroke of 36 inches to achieve the power required. The valve gear was of a design Stevens had developed himself.

Although the locomotive was presented to the public, no use was found for this size class at the time. It also turned out that the boiler did not produce enough steam for the large cylinders. It was scrapped about ten years after completion.

General
Built1884
ManufacturerSacramento
Axle config4-10-0 (Mastodon) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase28 ft 11 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 7 in
Total wheelbase52 ft 8 in
Service weight154,000 lbs
Adhesive weight130,000 lbs
Total weight217,000 lbs
Axle load26,750 lbs
Water capacity3,000 us gal
Fuel capacity10,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power675 hp (503 kW)
Optimal speed13 mph
Starting effort31,961 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure135 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 21 x 36 in
Boiler
Grate area29.8 sq ft
Firebox area197 sq ft
Tube heating area1,258 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,455 sq ft
Total heating area1,455 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
prototype
A.J. Stevens
last changed: 03/2023
Southern Pacific class A-6
United States | 1927 | 4 produced
No. 3002 in September 1941 in Los Angeles
No. 3002 in September 1941 in Los Angeles
Theodore A. Gay

All A-3 Atlantics built from 1904 onwards were fitted with a superheater from 1920 and most of them also received a feedwater heater and a booster on the trailing axle. Four underwent an even bigger rebuild in the Southern Pacific workshops, resulting in the class A-6. Two each were completed in August 1927 and October 1928.

As opposed to other rebuilds with a driver diameter of 77 inches, the A-6 retained the original 81 inches. In addition, the diameter of the cylinders was increased by two inches and the boiler pressure was increased by ten psi. The tube heating surface has been increased by about five percent and the frame has been strengthened. In total, this resulted in a service mass increased by around 20 tons. Their duties included the haulage of the Sacramento Daylight.

General
Built1927-1928
ManufacturerSouthern Pacific
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase28 ft 8 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft
Total wheelbase78 ft 8 1/2 in
Service weight243,899 lbs
Adhesive weight126,700 lbs
Total weight417,899 lbs
Axle load64,501 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,700 hp (1,268 kW)
Optimal speed36 mph
Starting effort29,865 lbf
Booster11,520 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter81 in
Boiler pressure210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 22 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area49.5 sq ft
Firebox area176 sq ft
Tube heating area2,129 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,305 sq ft
Superheater area435 sq ft
Total heating area2,740 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
booster
last changed: 07/2022
Southern Pacific classes GS-1 and GS-2
United States | 1930 | 20 produced
GS-1 No. 4405 in San Francisco
GS-1 No. 4405 in San Francisco
collection Taylor Rush

In 1930, the Southern Pacific used its Mountains as a base and installed a larger firebox, now supported by a two-axle bogie. This resulted in the GS-1, which was intended for passenger and express trains with a driver diameter of 73.5 inches or 1,867 mm and was built by Baldwin. GS stood for “Golden State” or later “General Service”. Ten GS-1 were delivered directly to the Southern Pacific and four to the Texas & Louisiana Lines.

GS-2 Nr. 4415 in January 1937 in East St. Louis, Illinois
GS-2 Nr. 4415 in January 1937 in East St. Louis, Illinois
R.J. Foster / collection Taylor Rush

In 1937 six GS-2s were delivered from Lima. They were almost identical to the GS-1, but had colorful streamlined fairing, making them about 6,000 pounds heavier. The famous GS-3 to GS-5, which had larger drivers, were later built with the same fairing. Since the GS-1 and -2 soon no longer had to pull the fastest trains, they were considered for heavy commuter trains. Especially in the San Francisco area, they had to prove their power in demanding schedules until the second half of the 1950s.

VariantGS-1GS-2
General
Built19301937
ManufacturerBaldwinLima
Axle config4-8-4 (Northern) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase45 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase20 ft
Total wheelbase88 ft 3 in94 ft 0 1/2 in
Service weight442,300 lbs448,400 lbs
Adhesive weight262,000 lbs266,500 lbs
Total weight733,300 lbs821,400 lbs
Axle load67,000 lbs
Water capacity16,150 us gal21,600 us gal
Fuel capacity4,690 us gal (oil)6,275 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,650 hp (3,468 kW)
Optimal speed47 mph
Starting effort63,230 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73.5 in
Boiler pressure250 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 27 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area90.2 sq ft
Firebox area356 sq ft
Tube heating area4,502 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,858 sq ft
Superheater area2,565 sq ft
Total heating area7,423 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
streamline
last changed: 02/2024
Southern Pacific classes GS-3 to GS-5
United States | 1937 | 44 produced
GS-4 No. 4444
GS-4 No. 4444
collection Taylor Rush

After the GS-1 and GS-2, Southern Pacific decided to design additional express locomotives in the “Golden State” series for higher speeds. By increasing the size of the drivers from 73.5 to 80 inches, the GS-3 was created, which also pulled the “Coast Daylight”. Since there were many gradients on the line between Los Angeles and San Francisco, the tractive force was compensated for by a longer cylinder stroke and higher boiler pressure.

Like the GS-2, the GS-3 stood out with its partial streamlined fairing and striking color scheme of orange, red, silver and black. After 14 GS-3s built in 1937, a total of 28 GS-4s were built in 1941 and 1942. These differed from the GS-3 mainly in a booster in the trailing bogie. They also had a faster-acting, electro-pneumatic brake, which was later removed.

During World War II, the Southern Pacific wanted to build more locomotives of this type, but the government only allowed the construction of freight locomotives. Thus, the abbreviation GS was reinterpreted from “Golden State” to “General Service”, which would indicate that these locomotives were suitable for freight and passenger trains.

In 1942 only two GS-5s were built, which now had roller bearings on all axles. The later developed GS-6 again had smaller wheels and was actually suitable for mixed service. The GS-3 to GS-5 were retired in 1957 and 1958 and largely scrapped. Among the only two members of the GS series that still exist today is the GS-4 No. 4449, which is operational.

VariantGS-3GS-4GS-5
General
Built19371941-19421942
ManufacturerLima
Axle config4-8-4 (Northern) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase47 ft 8 in
Fixed wheelbase21 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase96 ft 3 in
Service weight460,000 lbs475,000 lbs483,200 lbs
Adhesive weight267,300 lbs275,700 lbs278,700 lbs
Total weight818,880 lbs788,730 lbs881,800 lbs
Axle load67,000 lbs69,000 lbs70,000 lbs
Water capacity22,000 us gal23,300 us gal
Fuel capacity60,100 us gal (oil)6,275 us gal (oil)5,978 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power5,000 hp (3,729 kW)5,200 hp (3,878 kW)
Optimal speed50 mph48 mph50 mph
Starting effort64,355 lbf66,326 lbf
Booster13,000 lbf13,200 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure280 psi300 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 32 intwo, 25 1/2 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area90.4 sq ft
Firebox area388 sq ft385 sq ft388 sq ft
Tube heating area4,502 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,890 sq ft4,887 sq ft4,890 sq ft
Superheater area2,565 sq ft1,834 sq ft2,086 sq ft
Total heating area7,455 sq ft6,721 sq ft6,976 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
booster
last changed: 12/2023
Southern Pacific class M-4
United States | 1899 | 105 produced
No. 1701 in May 1935 in Los Angeles
No. 1701 in May 1935 in Los Angeles
collection Taylor Rush

A total of 105 of these Moguls were commissioned by the Southern Pacific beginning in 1899. They were from ALCO, most of them from Cooke and the rest from Schenectady. They were rebuilt from 1920 with a superheater. They were used in mainline service up until the 1940s and as switchers into the 1950s. Preserved today is number 1673, which is in Tucson, Arizona and has been optically refurbished since 2000.

Variantas builtsuperheated
General
Built1899-19011920-1922
ManufacturerCooke, ALCOSacramento
Axle config2-6-0 (Mogul) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase23 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 2 in
Total wheelbase46 ft 8 1/2 in
Service weight142,600 lbs157,900 lbs
Adhesive weight123,700 lbs134,600 lbs
Axle load41,235 lbs44,870 lbs
Water capacity4,500 us gal
Fuel capacity20,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power850 hp (634 kW)1,100 hp (820 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph24 mph
Starting effort28,711 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure190 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area30.3 sq ft
Firebox area168 sq ft156 sq ft
Tube heating area1,947 sq ft1,350 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,115 sq ft1,506 sq ft
Superheater area269 sq ft
Total heating area2,115 sq ft1,775 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 03/2023
Southern Pacific classes MT-1, MT-3, MT-4 and MT-5
United States | 1923 | 77 produced
MT-3 No. 4332 with Skyline Casing in April 1952 in San Francisco
MT-3 No. 4332 with Skyline Casing in April 1952 in San Francisco
Henry Bender / collection Taylor Rush

The Mountains of the Southern Pacific were intended for long-range passenger trains, sometimes covering more than 800 miles without changing locomotives. The first 28 MT-1s were built by ALCO in Schenectady in 1923 and 1924. The additional batches built by the SP in Sacramento from 1925 to 1930 and totalling 49 were designated MT-3 through MT-5. The MT-2 class was used for six similar locomotives built for the El Paso & Southwestern.

The use of high-tensile steel made lightweight construction possible, which allowed for a larger boiler without exceeding the weight limits. The moving masses in particular were made lighter to improve running at high speeds. They also received a booster on the trailing axle and a Worthington feed water heater. In addition, some, like the one pictured, were retrofitted with a skyline casing on top of the boiler.

Most of the time they were used in front of long-range passenger trains, but also in front of freight trains. In later years they were used in fast suburban traffic. All were scrapped between 1954 and 1959.

General
Built1923-1930
ManufacturerALCO, Sacramento
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase42 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase20 ft
Total wheelbase83 ft 6 in
Service weight368,000 lbs
Adhesive weight246,000 lbs
Total weight610,400 lbs
Axle load61,800 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal
Fuel capacity3,790 lbs (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort57,511 lbf
Booster10,100 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 28 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area75.7 sq ft
Firebox area355 sq ft
Tube heating area4,201 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,556 sq ft
Superheater area1,162 sq ft
Total heating area5,718 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2024
Southern Pacific class S-12
United States | 1919 | 38 produced
No. 1261 in April 1956 in Fresno, California
No. 1261 in April 1956 in Fresno, California
J.A. Strapac Collection
No. 137 on a works photo
No. 137 on a works photo
Baldwin / collection Taylor Rush

After some 0-6-0 switchers, which the Southern Pacific had received from several manufacturers, they built more in their own shops. Six of the class, designated S-12, were built between 1919 and 1921 in Los Angeles and 32 in Sacramento. At least some of the locomotives were oil-fired, as the technical data shows. Their service ended between 1949 and 1952.

General
Built1919-1923
ManufacturerLos Angeles, Sacramento
Axle config0-6-0 (Six-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight153,000 lbs
Adhesive weight153,000 lbs
Total weight291,100 lbs
Axle load38,250 lbs
Water capacity7,000 us gal
Fuel capacity2,940 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort31,018 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 26 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
switcher
last changed: 11/2023
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