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Steam Locomotives of the Cape Government Railways (CGR)[Inhalt]
Cape Government Railways Fairlie
South Africa | 1875 | 2 produced
No. E34 of 1878
No. E34 of 1878
Frank Holland collection
Variant1875 variant1878 variant
General
Built18751878
ManufacturerAvonside
Axle config0-6-6-0T (Double Fairlie) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length45 ft 2 in37 ft 6 in
Wheelbase29 ft25 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 6 in
Service weight80,645 lbs
Adhesive weight80,645 lbs
Axle load13,442 lbs
Water capacity1,009 us gal
Fuel capacity4,704 lbs (coal)2,800 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power250 hp (186 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph12 mph
Starting effort14,008 lbf13,319 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39 in39.5 in
Boiler pressure135 psi130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 11 1/2 x 18 in
Boiler
Grate area14 sq ft
Firebox area90 sq ft
Tube heating area908 sq ft
Evaporative heating area998 sq ft
Total heating area998 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
double Fairlie
tank locomotive
last changed: 08 2023
Cape Government Railways class 1 4-4-0
South African class 01 4-4-0
South Africa | 1879 | 15 produced

A problem with the Cape Government Railways mainline locomotives of the 1870s was the small driver diameter of less than 40 inches. On passenger trains in particular, this led to high wear if they were ran at higher speeds for a longer period of time. In addition, the range of the tank locomotives mostly used was too small for newly opened lines in sparsely populated areas.

The solution was a tender locomotive with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement and a wheel diameter of 48 inches. First, in 1879, the Avonside Engine Company delivered two locomotives each for the western and eastern networks, which received the numbers W25, W26, E8 and E9. The following year Neilson & Co. added six more for the west and five more for the east, bringing the total to 15.

With the help of these locomotives, the Karoo semi-desert could now also be opened up with fast passenger trains. An average speed of 34 mph was reached on the 339 miles long route from Cape Town to Beaufort West, which was a record for South Africa. When the South African Railways were founded in 1910, the locomotives, which were now classified as class 1, were classified as obsolete. So they became class 01 and got a zero prefixed to their running number. The nine locomotives still in existence at that time were all retired until 1915.

General
Built1879-1880
ManufacturerAvonside, Neilson & Co.
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length41 ft 4 in
Wheelbase17 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase33 ft 4 in
Service weight51,875 lbs
Adhesive weight35,869 lbs
Total weight89,882 lbs
Axle load18,032 lbs
Water capacity2,042 us gal
Fuel capacity5,600 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power200 hp (149 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Starting effort8,122 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 x 18 in
Boiler
Grate area10 sq ft
Firebox area52 sq ft
Tube heating area513 sq ft
Evaporative heating area565 sq ft
Total heating area565 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 03/2023
Cape Government Railways class 4 4-4-2
South African class 04 4-4-2
South Africa | 1897 | 6 produced
The photo shows the overwhelming resemblance to the JNR 6600
The photo shows the overwhelming resemblance to the JNR 6600
„Die Schönsten der Schiene, die Geschichte der Atlantic” von Wilhelm Reuter

Almost identical to the Japanese Atlantics with the JNR numbers 6600 to 6623 were the six locomotives that the Cape Government Railways received from Baldwin in 1897. The order came about because the CGR could not order from the British manufacturers as usual due to strikes and Baldwin had already developed a locomotive that largely met the requirements. Only the heating surface was slightly enlarged and the engine had to be converted to South African Johnston couplers, which is why a lower purchase price could be offered. They were assigned to Class 4, which also included 4-6-0 locomotives.

It is said that the chief engineer of the CGR, H.M. Beatty, was impressed by the robust construction and he valued the merits of the bar frame so much that his later designs also all got a bar frame. After the founding of the South African Union in 1910 and the merger of the railway administrations, it became apparent, as with the Japanese sisters, that the locomotives had too little adhesive weight to reliably start heavy trains. They were therefore classified as obsolete, but remained in use on their main route until 1931.

General
Built1897
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 5 1/2 in
Wheelbase22 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft
Total wheelbase45 ft 11 1/2 in
Service weight100,354 lbs
Adhesive weight53,197 lbs
Total weight167,772 lbs
Axle load27,205 lbs
Water capacity2,882 us gal
Fuel capacity12,880 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power800 hp (597 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph
Starting effort15,387 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter56 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area30 sq ft
Firebox area98 sq ft
Tube heating area1,462 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,560 sq ft
Total heating area1,560 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 03/2022
Cape Government Railways class 6 (1893)
South African class 6
South Africa | 1893 | 40 produced
SAR No. 432 in Nigel, Gauteng
SAR No. 432 in Nigel, Gauteng
Col André Kritzinger

In order to expand the capacity for hauling heavy passenger trains in the western and central parts of the Cape Colony, H.M. Beatty developed the first Class 6 locomotives to the specifications of Superintendent Michael Stephens. With a driver diameter of 54 inches, they were quite suitable for faster trains for the proportions of cape-gauge locomotives of the 1890s. The 40 examples were supplied by Dübs in Glasgow and introduced a new three-axle tender carrying 5 and a half tons of coal and 2,846 gallons of water.

The locomotives fully met the expectations placed on them and proved to be extremely inexpensive to maintain. In 1897, ten units were sold to the Oranje Free State Railways and operated there as Class 6-L. When the Orange Free State fell to British troops after the Second Boer War, they came to the Central South African Railways as Class 6-L1s. Their manager even suggested using the locomotives to set up a 48-hour connection for the 870 mile route from Cape Town to Johannesburg.

With the formation of the South African Railways they continued to be listed simply as Class 6 because they were the first of their kind. As the Class 6 was gradually replaced by more powerful locomotives in the role of fast passenger trains, it developed a reputation as the „jack of all trades”. They were to be found in front of almost all types of trains for several decades, and seven were even delivered to Sudan during World War II. The last examples were not retired until 1973, when they had been in service for 79 and 80 years respectively. Three examples remain today, one of which is operational and used intermittently by Rovos Rail to power the Pride of Africa luxury train.

Variantas builtrebuilt belpaire
General
Built1893-1894
ManufacturerDübs & Co.
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length50 ft 8 1/2 in51 ft 7 1/4 in
Wheelbase20 ft 3 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft
Total wheelbase41 ft 9 1/8 in
Service weight99,792 lbs114,408 lbs
Adhesive weight77,896 lbs89,712 lbs
Total weight165,984 lbs180,600 lbs
Axle load26,824 lbs30,016 lbs
Water capacity2,846 us gal
Fuel capacity12,320 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power525 hp (391 kW)650 hp (485 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph19 mph
Starting effort18,924 lbf21,290 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure160 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area16.8 sq ft16.6 sq ft
Firebox area95 sq ft111 sq ft
Tube heating area946 sq ft1,287.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,041 sq ft1,398.5 sq ft
Total heating area1,041 sq ft1,398.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
H.M. Beatty
last changed: 05/2022
Cape Government Railways class 7 (1896)
South African class 7A
South Africa | 1896 | 46 produced
7A No. 1007 in September 1997 in Voorbaai
7A No. 1007 in September 1997 in Voorbaai
Ian Roberts

The second type of Class 7 4-8-0 locomotives procured by the Cape Government Railways was built from 1896 for the central and eastern regions. They all came from British manufacturers and 45 were delivered by 1898, while a single one came from Dübs in 1901.

These locomotives were a development of the 1891 model and again were designed by Beatty. Compared to their predecessors, they had a larger boiler and a larger tender. Only the first driving axle had no wheel flanges. In the 1930s, many were rebuilt with a superheater and piston valves.

The Sudanese military received eight identical locomotives in 1897 and 1898 and used them in the Mahdist War. They were also called “Dongola class”. They had been given water pipes to the front so that an additional tender could be coupled there for use in the desert.

Of the GCR's locomotives, all but two, which had previously been sold, were taken over by the SAR in 1912. During the First World War, some were used in the conquest of German South West Africa. Due to their suitability in this region, more were later relocated there. After replacing them with more modern steam locomotives and diesel locomotives, the SAR retired the last class 7A locomotives in 1972.

Variantas builtsuperheated
General
Built1896-1898, 1901
ManufacturerSharp, Stewart & Co., Dübs & Co., Neilson & Co.
Axle config4-8-0 (Twelve-wheeler) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 5 1/4 in
Wheelbase21 ft 3 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft
Total wheelbase46 ft 2 in
Service weight104,160 lbs109,988 lbs
Adhesive weight80,192 lbs84,679 lbs
Total weight180,544 lbs186,379 lbs
Axle load20,160 lbs21,729 lbs
Water capacity3,122 us gal
Fuel capacity12,320 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power500 hp (373 kW)700 hp (522 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph19 mph
Starting effort21,146 lbf23,789 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter42.8 in
Boiler pressure160 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 23 in
Boiler
Grate area17.5 sq ft18 sq ft
Firebox area102 sq ft113 sq ft
Tube heating area976 sq ft806 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,078 sq ft919 sq ft
Superheater area206 sq ft
Total heating area1,078 sq ft1,125 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
H.M. Beatty
last changed: 01/2024
Cape Government Railways Kitson-Meyer
Beira, Mashonaland & Rhodesia and Central South African Kitson-Meyer and South African class KM
South Africa | 1903 | 4 produced
CGR No. 800 on a factory photo with serial number 4197 written on it
CGR No. 800 on a factory photo with serial number 4197 written on it

In 1903, Kitson presented their variant of the Meyer locomotive in South Africa in which the running gears were further apart and both had the cylinders at the rear. Thus, as with the Garratt, a large firebox could be placed in between. This design, named “Kitson-Meyer”, was offered for testing to the GCR, the Beira and Mashonaland Railway and the CSAR.

The coal bunker with a capacity of seven long tons was on these machines on the main frame behind the cab and the exhaust steam from the rear cylinders was channeled through this into an auxiliary chimney. On the four-axle tender were another six long tons of coal and 3,000 gallons of water.

The CGR received one locomotive, the B&MR two and the CSAR one. With a total of six driving axles, they could pull about one third more than locomotives with four driving axles. However, it quickly turned out to be a disadvantage that the exhaust steam from the rear cylinders did not escape through the smokebox. Thus, the boiler steamed poorly.

The CGR later increased the tender's water capacity to 4,000 gallons at the expense of coal capacity, but of course this did not improve boiler performance. Although they were to become the KM class at the SAR, the CGR and B&MR locomotives were retired in 1912. Only the CSAR loco was able to remain in service for a few more years after modifying the cylinders and reducing the boiler problem.

General
Built1903
ManufacturerKitson & Co.
Axle config0-6-0+0-6-0 (Kitson-Meyer) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 5 1/4 in
Wheelbase34 ft
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase58 ft 4 1/2 in
Service weight186,246 lbs
Adhesive weight186,246 lbs
Total weight271,168 lbs
Axle load33,378 lbs
Water capacity3,603 us gal
Fuel capacity29,120 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power900 hp (671 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Starting effort39,168 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area34 sq ft
Firebox area136 sq ft
Tube heating area1,727 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,863 sq ft
Total heating area1,863 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Kitson-Meyer
tank locomotive
last changed: 07/2023
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