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Japanese Electric Locomotives[Inhalt]
Japanese Government Railways class 1000
later class ED10
Japan | 1922 | 2 produced
ED10 2, actually Seibu E71, in October 2009 in Yokoze depot
ED10 2, actually Seibu E71, in October 2009 in Yokoze depot
Rsa

In 1922, the JGR commissioned two electric locomotives, which were numbered 1000 and 1001. They had been manufactured by Baldwin and Westinghouse in the USA and followed the box cab design that was common there at the time. They were first used in the Tokyo area on the Yamanote line and on the Chuo main line. What was special about these lines was that the catenary carried either 600 or 1,200 volts, depending on the section, and the locomotives had to be designed for both voltages.

From 1925 the locomotives were used on the Tokaido main line, freshly electrified with 1,500 volts, after they had been modified accordingly. From 1928 they were designated ED10 1 and ED10 2 according to a new scheme. They were retired from the JNR in 1959 and 1960 respectively. The number 2 was then sold to the Seibu Railway and used there until 1986 to pull freight trains. It was preserved and is now in Yokoze in its original color scheme.

General
Built1922
Manufacturermechanical part: Baldwin, electrical part: Westinghouse
Axle configB-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length39 ft 7 9/16 in
Wheelbase29 ft 5 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 1 1/16 in
Service weight134,702 lbs
Adhesive weight134,702 lbs
Axle load33,731 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system600 V, 1,200 V, 1,500 V
Hourly power1,100 hp (820 kW)
Top speed40 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 05/2022
Japanese Government Railways class 7000
later class ED54
Japan | 1926 | 2 produced
No. 7001 on a works photo
No. 7001 on a works photo
F.J.G. Haut, „The pictorial history of electric locomotives”

At the time when JGR imported electric locomotives from abroad, there were also some from Switzerland. In addition to two class 1020 freight locomotives, there were also two class 7000 express locomotives supplied by SLM Winterthur and BBC. They were used on the Tokaido main line under direct current at 1,500 volts.

The Buchli drive, which is widespread in Switzerland, was used to achieve smooth running at speeds of up to 100 km/h. Here, the axles were driven by a mechanism mounted on one side, which was able to cushion the unevenness of the rail. To improve running characteristics, Java bogies were used, which were also an SLM specialty. With this chassis design, the two middle drive axles were mounted in the frame so that they could be moved sideways, while at each end of the locomotive there was an internally articulated bogie, each with a drive axle and a running axle designed as an Adams axle.

The locomotives were able to convince with their high power and their good running characteristics, but the small number of two units did not allow economical use. The Buchli drive in particular presented the mechanics with difficulties because it had not been used on any other locomotive in Japan. Instruction of the drivers in the peculiarities of the locomotives also represented an effort. As a result, the two locomotives were only used sporadically and the state's own production of electric locomotives soon made them completely superfluous. Finally, in 1948, they were completely phased out. Number 2, which was actually put aside for museum preservation, was also scrapped in the 1960s.

General
Built1926
Manufacturermechanical part: SLM, electrical part: BBC
Axle config1A-B-A1 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length44 ft 7 7/16 in
Wheelbase32 ft 5 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 2 13/16 in
Service weight170,858 lbs
Adhesive weight130,073 lbs
Axle load32,518 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system1,500 V
Hourly power2,172 hp (1,620 kW)
Continuous power1,851 hp (1,380 kW)
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort19,783 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2022
Japanese National Railways class EF57
Japan | 1940 | 15 produced
National Diet Library
General
Built1940-1943
ManufacturerHitachi, Kawasaki
Axle config2-C+C-2 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length65 ft 4 1/4 in
Service weight244,316 lbs
Adhesive weight184,527 lbs
Axle load30,754 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system1,500 V
Hourly power2,213 hp (1,650 kW)
Top speed59 mph
Starting effort20,907 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 10 2023
Japanese National Railways class ED60
Japan | 1958 | 8 produced
An ED60 together with an EF58 in 1978 in front of a freight train
An ED60 together with an EF58 in 1978 in front of a freight train
Gohachiyasu1214

The ED60 was the first representative of a new generation of DC locomotives, which was characterized by the use of smaller, lighter, high-performance traction motors, which made it possible to dispense with carrying axles. The two motors of each bogie were connected in series and operated with a voltage of 750 volts. Due to their small size and high power, the locomotives in Japan were referred to as “nuclear locomotives”, based on the comic “Astro Boy”. They had gangway doors at the ends, which were used in multiple traction.

There were only eight ED60, which came from different manufacturers. The first came from Mitsubishi, four from Kawasaki and three were built jointly by Toyo and Kisha Seizo. They were used in front of freight trains on branch lines that had been bought up by private railways. For routes that were suitable for a higher axle load, some of the locomotives were built with an artificially increased mass of four tons. The EF60, which was introduced a short time later, was intended for main lines. The use of the ED60 ended in 1986 when freight traffic ended on the traditional routes.

Variantstandard variantHanwa line
General
Built1958-1960
ManufacturerKawasaki, Mitsubishi, Tōyō & Kisha Seizō
Axle configB-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 7 13/16 in
Service weight123,459 lbs132,277 lbs
Adhesive weight123,459 lbs132,277 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs33,069 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system1,500 V
Hourly power2,092 hp (1,560 kW)
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort28,326 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
freight
last changed: 03/2022
Japanese National Railways class EF60
Japan | 1960 | 143 produced
An EF60 in the year 1978 in front of a freight train
An EF60 in the year 1978 in front of a freight train
Gohachiyasu1214

The EF60 was the first Japanese six-axle electric locomotive to have three two-axle bogies to reduce the loads on the rails. It shared the 390 kW traction motors with the ED60, making it the second second-generation Japanese electric locomotive. Production was split between Kawasaki, Mitsubishi, Toshiba and a cooperation between Toyo and Kisha Seizo. There were 129 examples for freight use, designated EF60-0, replacing the EH10, and 14 for passenger use, designated EF60-500, replacing the EF58.

After two prototypes and twelve production engines had been built from 1960, production started in larger numbers from 1962. From the third production lot, which was built in 1964, the locomotives had two headlights at each end instead of one large and more powerful traction motors, each with 425 kW. The EF60-500 were replaced in service with passenger trains by new models as early as 1965 and then used for freight trains. From 1977 a total of eleven locomotives were converted to EF61 and EF67 for helper duties on inclines. The retirement of all remaining EF60s was completed in 1986.

Variantbatches 1 and 2batch 3
General
Built1960-1964
ManufacturerKawasaki, Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Tōyō & Kisha Seizō
Axle configB-B-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 1 5/8 in
Service weight211,644 lbs
Adhesive weight211,644 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system1,500 V
Hourly power3,138 hp (2,340 kW)3,420 hp (2,550 kW)
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort51,032 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 04/2022
Japanese National Railways class EF70
Japan | 1961 | 81 produced
EF70 21 in August 1983 at Toyama
EF70 21 in August 1983 at Toyama
Nobuyuki Nagao
VariantEF70 01-18EF70 19-81
General
Built1961-1965
ManufacturerHitachi, Mitsubishi
Axle configB-B-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 11 7/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 2 1/4 in
Service weight211,644 lbs
Adhesive weight211,644 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system20,000 V 60 Hz
Hourly power3,017 hp (2,250 kW)3,084 hp (2,300 kW)
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort66,094 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 10 2023
Japanese National Railways class EF62
Japan | 1962 | 54 produced
EF62 46 of JR East in 1997 in front of an excursion train
EF62 46 of JR East in 1997 in front of an excursion train
toshinori baba

The steepest section of the Japanese network was on the Shinetsu main line at the Usui Pass and had a gradient of 6.67 percent. At the time when the new generation of DC locomotives was introduced, it was still being operated with rack electric locomotives from the 1930s, which were now to be replaced. The result was a six-axle locomotive that could be used for passenger and freight trains alike and that was to cover the entire Shinetsu route without cogwheel operation. On the steepest section, they were to be supported by two EF63 each. The production of the total of 54 machines was again divided among several manufacturers.

For weight reasons, the combination of three two-axle bogies was not used here, but two bogies, each with three axles. The replacement of the steam boiler for the train heating with an electric heater, which was not yet standard at the time, also served to save weight. Parts of the vehicle body were made of glass fiber reinforced plastic instead of metal.

Uphill travel times between the two stations before and after the Usui Pass have been reduced from 42 to 17 minutes. After more and more multiple units were introduced, the field of application of the EF62 soon focused on freight trains. Since this section still led to delays, freight traffic was routed via a different route from 1984, which ended the use of the locomotives at this point. They were still relocated, but soon afterwards most of the engines were retired. After the privatization of the Japanese railways, the last remaining EF62s were used by JR East in front of night trains and were also retired by 1998.

General
Built1962-1969
ManufacturerKawasaki, Toshiba, Tōyō & Kisha Seizō
Axle configC-C 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length59 ft 0 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 9 9/16 in
Service weight211,644 lbs
Adhesive weight211,644 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system1,500 V
Hourly power3,420 hp (2,550 kW)
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort51,706 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 03/2022
Japanese National Railways class ED75
Japan | 1963 | 302 produced
ED75 1010 in September 2008 at Rikuzen-Sanno station
ED75 1010 in September 2008 at Rikuzen-Sanno station
Mutimaro
General
Built1963-1976
ManufacturerHitachi, Mitsubishi, Toshiba
Axle configB-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length46 ft 11 in
Service weight148,150 lbs
Adhesive weight148,150 lbs
Axle load37,038 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system20,000 V 60 Hz, 20,000 V 50 Hz
Hourly power2,548 hp (1,900 kW)
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort59,574 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 10 2023
Japanese National Railways class ED76
Japan | 1965 | 139 produced
ED76 509 in the Otaru Museum
ED76 509 in the Otaru Museum
Shutsu Ware ichi

The ED76 is an electric locomotive for passenger and freight service with three bogies, only two of which are powered. The base model was the series 0, of which 94 were built. The 22 locomotives of the series 500 had a longer car body because the water and fuel tanks for the train heating had been enlarged. They had gangways at the fronts because they were often used in pairs. One example was adapted for the Seikan Tunnel and formed the series 550. 23 locos for express freight service formed the series 1000. In 2016 only ten locos were still in service, all owned by JR Freight.

Variantseries 0, 1000series 500series 550
General
Built1965-1979
ManufacturerHitachi, Mitsubishi, Toshiba
Axle configB-2-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length57 ft 1 1/16 in60 ft 4 7/16 in
Service weight191,802 lbs199,518 lbs177,251 lbs
Adhesive weight148,150 lbs153,442 lbs136,686 lbs
Axle load37,038 lbs38,360 lbs34,172 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system20,000 V 60 Hz, 20,000 V 50 Hz
Hourly power2,548 hp (1,900 kW)
Top speed62 mph68 mph
Starting effort31,024 lbf27,876 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 06/2023
Japanese National Railways class EF81
Japan | 1968 | 161 produced
EF81 502 in August 2010 between Yamazaki and Shimamoto
EF81 502 in August 2010 between Yamazaki and Shimamoto
Mitsuki-2368
General
Built1968-1992
ManufacturerHitachi, Mitsubishi
Axle configB-B-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length61 ft 0 5/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 3/8 in
Service weight222,226 lbs
Adhesive weight222,226 lbs
Axle load37,038 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC/DC
Electric system20,000 V 60 Hz, 20,000 V 50 Hz, 1,500 V
Hourly power3,420 hp (2,550 kW)
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort44,063 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
freight
multi-system
last changed: 10 2023
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