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Tank Locomotives 2-4-2T “Columbia”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 1'B1'
Bavarian Pt 2/4 H
German Reichsbahn class 712
Germany | 1906 | 12 produced
First variant (No. 5001 to 5010)
First variant (No. 5001 to 5010)
Die Lokomotive, September 1906

For the cost-effective use of passenger trains on routes with low passenger volumes, the Royal Bavarian State Railways developed a locomotive that reached sufficient speed in both directions and could be operated by one man. The solution was a tank locomotive with a 2-4-2T wheel arrangement, which had a tipping device for loading the firebox with coal.

Second variant (No. 5011 to 5012)
Second variant (No. 5011 to 5012)
Die Lokomotive, October 1908

Thanks to superheated steam, it achieved adequate power and the coupling wheel diameter of 1,546 mm ensured a good compromise between tractive power and speed. There was a gangway from the driver's cab to the train and the front platform could also be reached via running boards with railings. The water tanks were designed to be narrower than the locomotive so as not to block the way.

Schematical drawing of the first version
Schematical drawing of the first version
Die Lokomotive, September 1906

A special feature of the chassis was that the first coupled axle was in a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie together with the leading axle, although there were only two coupled axles. This resulted in a fixed wheelbase of zero with very good curve guidance at the same time. The top speed was initially set at 75 km/h and later increased to 80 km/h. According to reports, however, they regularly ran in both directions at up to 90 km/h.

Twelve pieces were made, some of which differed from one another in several aspects. The Reichsbahn took over all of these and classified them as class 712. Some examples survived the Second World War and were used until 1948.

VariantNo. 5001 to 5010No. 5010 to 5011
General
Built19061908
ManufacturerKrauss
Axle config2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length35 ft 1 1/4 in35 ft 2 13/16 in
Wheelbase23 ft 11 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase0 ft 0 in
Empty weight101,633 lbs
Service weight132,277 lbs128,970 lbs
Adhesive weight69,886 lbs69,225 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs34,613 lbs
Water capacity2,113 us gal
Fuel capacity3,968 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power429 hp (320 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort19,225 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60.9 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 19 5/16 x 21 1/4 in
Boiler
Grate area13.2 sq ft
Firebox area60.3 sq ft
Tube heating area671.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area731.9 sq ft
Superheater area210.9 sq ft
Total heating area942.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
secondary line
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
German Reichsbahn class 710
Germany | 1934 | 6 produced
71 001 built by Schwartzkopff
71 001 built by Schwartzkopff
Die Lokomotive, June 1935

Under the class 71, the Reichsbahn combined a number of tank locomotives of the Länderbahnen with the wheel arrangement 2-4-2T for light and fast passenger trains. To replace these locomotives, the 710 was redeveloped as a standard locomotive in the 1930s. Instead of series production, however, there were a total of six pre-production models from Schwarzkopff, Borsig and Krupp.

The most striking feature was the symmetrical chassis, which allowed running at top speed in both directions and had a long wheelbase between the two driven axles. Since it was partly planned to replace railcars with this locomotive, it was designed for one-man operation. In return, it received a stoker for automatic grate loading, which made the heater superfluous. As with other standard locomotives, a boiler pressure of 20 bars was initially used, but this was later reduced to 16 bars due to fatigue in the steel alloy St 47 K.

All six locomotives survived the war and then came to the Bundesbahn. However, it was a small class by number which, despite the standard design, was difficult to maintain and could not be planned into operation on a large scale. So they were retired in 1956 and none are left today.

Variant71 001-004 as built71 001-004 reduced boiler pressure71 005-006 as built71 005-006 reduced boiler pressure
General
Built19341936
ManufacturerBMAGBorsig, Krupp
Axle config2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length39 ft 0 1/2 in38 ft 8 9/16 in
Wheelbase27 ft 6 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Service weight129,191 lbs
Adhesive weight66,139 lbs
Axle load33,069 lbs
Water capacity1,849 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power562 hp (419 kW)562 hp (419 kW)
Estimated power671 hp (500 kW)671 hp (500 kW)
Optimal speed26 mph28 mph25 mph26 mph
Top speed56 mph62 mph
Starting effort16,162 lbf12,931 lbf17,169 lbf13,736 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter59.1 in63 in
Boiler pressure290 psi232 psi290 psi232 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 12 3/16 x 26 intwo, 13 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area14.7 sq ft14.9 sq ft
Firebox area59.2 sq ft
Tube heating area725.8 sq ft729.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area785 sq ft788.5 sq ft
Superheater area307.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,092.9 sq ft1,096.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Lancashire & Yorkshire classes 5 and 6
Great Britain | 1889 | 354 produced
No. 1051 with crew
No. 1051 with crew
Bulgarisches Staatsarchiv, Sofia
Variant56
General
Built1889-19111911-1914
ManufacturerHorwich
Axle config2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length39 ft 2 1/2 in
Wheelbase24 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 7 in
Service weight127,120 lbs148,848 lbs
Adhesive weight71,120 lbs87,920 lbs
Axle load39,200 lbs44,128 lbs
Water capacity1,609 us gal1,849 us gal
Fuel capacity5,040 lbs (coal)7,056 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power600 hp (447 kW)850 hp (634 kW)
Optimal speed24 mph22 mph
Starting effort15,925 lbf24,585 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68 in
Boiler pressure160 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/2 x 26 intwo, 20 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area18.8 sq ft
Firebox area107.7 sq ft107.4 sq ft
Tube heating area1,108.3 sq ft812.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,216 sq ft920 sq ft
Superheater area195 sq ft
Total heating area1,216 sq ft1,115 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 10 2023
Lübeck-Büchen Railway No. 1 to 3
German Reichsbahn class 60
Germany | 1936 | 3 produced
LBE No. 1 as 60 001 with two two-part double-deck cars in Hamburg
LBE No. 1 as 60 001 with two two-part double-deck cars in Hamburg
Werner Hubert / Eisenbahnstiftung - Bildarchiv

The numbers 1 to 3 of the Lübeck-Büchen Railway were tank locomotives that were specially developed for the double-deck streamlined push-pull train. These trains were purchased to increase the comfort and capacity of light express trains and were the first trains in Germany to be either pulled or pushed without relocating the locomotive at the end of the route.

The locomotives were small and light compared to others used for express trains and, in contrast to the machines with a tender, had the symmetrical wheel arrangement 2-4-2T in order to be able to run at 120 km/h in both directions without restrictions. Smooth running was improved by the fact that both running axles were suspended in Bissel frames with a centering device.

The special thing about the trains was the push-pull control, with which the locomotive could be controlled from the control car. Due to the complex operation of a steam locomotive, however, it was only possible to move the regulator remotely using a servo motor, while the fireman had to operate the valve gear and other things.

Sectional drawing
Sectional drawing
Die Lokomotive, June 1938

Modern achievements were also used for the rest of the train, for example two car bodies rested in the middle on a common Jakobs bogie. The interior consisted only of second and third class, but unlike the other trains of the period, all the seats were upholstered.

In 1936 two locomotives and their carriages were completed, but because these new trains attracted visitors from all over the world when the line opened, another set was ordered the following year. This was followed by successful operation between Hamburg and Lübeck, which was converted to conventional trains in 1938 after the line was taken over by the Reichsbahn. The locomotives were now numbered class 60 and used in other roles.

In contrast to the wagons, the two locomotives that remained after the war came to the eastern part of Germany. They were used at different locations and were retired in 1954 and 1958 respectively.

General
Built1936-1937
ManufacturerHenschel
Axle config2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length40 ft 7 3/8 in
Wheelbase28 ft 8 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Service weight152,119 lbs
Adhesive weight80,469 lbs
Axle load40,565 lbs
Water capacity2,457 us gal
Fuel capacity7,716 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power632 hp (471 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort26,909 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78 in
Boiler pressure232 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 15 3/4 in
Boiler
Grate area15.1 sq ft
Firebox area64.2 sq ft
Tube heating area747.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area811.6 sq ft
Superheater area279.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,091.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Prussian T 51
German Reichsbahn class 710-1
Germany | 1895 | 329 produced
Die Lokomotive, April 1924

Under the designation T 5, the Prussian State Railways combined tank locomotives for passenger transport, some of which differed significantly from one another, and which had been procured between 1880 and 1905. The wheel arrangements 2-4-2 with fixed and movable carrying axles, 4-4-0, 0-6-0 and 2-6-0 were used. The most numerous sub-variants were the T 51 and T 52, the former of which was built from 1895 for the suburban railways of Berlin.

In order to achieve an increase in performance compared to the older machines used there, another carrying axle was added. To improve the driving characteristics in the sometimes narrow curves, the wheelbase of the two coupled axles was made relatively short and the two running axles were designed as Adams axles, which could be moved sideways and radially.

By 1905, Henschel had manufactured 309 engines for Prussia, and between 1907 and 1921, 20 more almost identical but slightly lighter Hanomag units came to Oldenburg. After the advent of more powerful engines, the T 51 were withdrawn from the Berlin suburban railways and distributed to branch lines in various parts of Prussian territory. Despite the good running qualities in curves, the running smoothness at higher speeds was not sufficient for efficient use on main lines.

The Oldenburg T 5<sup>1</sup> number 280 “Nadorst” became 71 420 in the Reichsbahn
The Oldenburg T 51 number 280 “Nadorst” became 71 420 in the Reichsbahn
collection Oliver Westerhoff / www.laenderbahn.info

As with other locomotives from this period, the already reduced number of T 51 fell sharply between the conception of the Reichsbahn's renumbering plan and the actual renumbering. In 1923, for example, 115 engines were assigned a number in the 710-1 range, but in 1925 only 26 units were renumbered. Five years later the last ones were gone.

General
Built1895-1905
ManufacturerHenschel
Axle config2-4-2WT (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length38 ft 4 1/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft 3 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 6 3/4 in
Empty weight91,492 lbs
Service weight117,131 lbs
Adhesive weight69,225 lbs
Axle load34,613 lbs
Water capacity1,506 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power402 hp (300 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort15,895 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area16.9 sq ft
Firebox area71 sq ft
Tube heating area951.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,022.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,022.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
suburban
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Great Eastern class M15
London & North Eastern classes F4 and F5
Great Britain | 1884 | 160 produced
No. 7071 at Stratford
No. 7071 at Stratford
flickr/stratfordman72
Locomotive Magazine, February 1913

Between 1884 and 1886 Worsdell had 40 tank locomotives built for passenger service, which had Joy valve gear. Holden made 120 more between 1903 and 1909, which received Stephenson valve gear for lower fuel consumption. Many were fitted with a condensing gear for London traffic. From 1911 rebuilds to the M15R with a new boiler took place. At the LNER, the unrebuilt locomotives became the class F4 and the rebuilt ones became the F5. The first locomotives had already been retired from 1913, but some F4s remained in service until 1956. In 1949, seven F5s were still equipped with push-pull apparatus. The F5 was only phased out between 1955 and 1958.

Variant1884 variant1903 variantrebuilt M15R
General
Built1884-18861903-19091911-1920
ManufacturerStratford
Axle config2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length34 ft 10 in
Wheelbase23 ft
Fixed wheelbase23 ft
Service weight116,284 lbs115,544 lbs120,848 lbs
Adhesive weight65,268 lbs59,556 lbs
Axle load35,056 lbs33,348 lbs
Water capacity1,441 us gal
Fuel capacity5,040 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power425 hp (317 kW)500 hp (373 kW)525 hp (391 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph20 mph19 mph
Starting effort15,619 lbf17,571 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter64 in
Boiler pressure160 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/2 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area15.4 sq ft15.3 sq ft
Firebox area98.4 sq ft96.7 sq ft
Tube heating area955.6 sq ft1,034.6 sq ft1,018 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,054 sq ft1,133 sq ft1,114.7 sq ft
Total heating area1,054 sq ft1,133 sq ft1,114.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
condensator
Thomas William Worsdell
James Holden
last changed: 03/2023
Saxon IV T
German Reichsbahn class 713
Germany | 1897 | 91 produced
No. 1767 on a Hartmann company photo (around 1906)
No. 1767 on a Hartmann company photo (around 1906)

The type IV T designates tank locomotives with a 2-4-2T wheel arrangement for fast local transport, which were built by the Saxon machine factory Hartmann based on the Prussian T 51. Despite some serious problems with the running characteristics, 91 engines were built. Production began in 1897, when the locomotives were still designated as class VIII bb T according to the old scheme and bore the names of small Saxon towns. It was not until 1900 that they received the designation IV T and the numbers 1701 to 1791.

What was special about the chassis was that the two coupled wheel sets with an wheelbase of only 2,000 mm were very close together and the carrying wheels were 2,400 mm apart in front of and behind. Since the latter were designed as Adams axles and could therefore move independently, they ran unsteadily at high speeds and sometimes even derailed. Otherwise, the locomotives were conventionally designed with a two-cylinder saturated steam engine and drive on the second coupled axle. The plate frame also served as a water tank and was later expanded with additional tanks next to the boiler. The plate thickness of the frame was initially 12mm, but was later increased to 20mm while recesses for weight compensation were refilled.

In addition to the counterbalanced brake, the Westinghouse air brake was also used for braking from the first series. From a later series, the supplies were increased and the same conversions were made to the other locomotives. The water supply increased from 5.6 to 7.5 m³, and the coal supply was increased from 1.6 to 2 tonnes of coal.

From 1925, 85 units were in service with the Reichsbahn, which were designated as class 713 and thus given the numbers from 71 301 to 71 385. In the period that followed, the numbers shrank quickly, so that the East German Reichsbahn only received ten locomotives that were used until 1955. Two were used in Czechoslovakia, which had come there during the war.

Variant1897 variant1906 variant
General
Built1897-19051906-1909
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config2-4-2WT (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length38 ft 7 3/8 in
Wheelbase22 ft 3 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 6 3/4 in
Service weight132,498 lbs137,568 lbs
Adhesive weight67,461 lbs70,989 lbs
Axle load33,951 lbs34,613 lbs
Water capacity1,479 us gal1,981 us gal
Fuel capacity3,527 lbs (coal)4,409 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power402 hp (300 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort15,995 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area16.8 sq ft
Firebox area86.9 sq ft
Tube heating area924.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,011.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,011.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Great Western Railway class 3600
Great Britain | 1900 | 31 produced
flickr/stratfordman72

Instead of purchasing another series of the now obsolete "Metro Tanks", William Dean had a 2-4-2T tank locomotive built in 1900 with the number 11. With a driving wheel diameter of 5 ft 2 in (1,575 mm), it was ideal for fast suburban traffic. There were also water scoops in both directions to replenish water supplies.

In 1902 and 1903, 20 and ten more of the now known as class 3600 locomotives were built. About half each were deployed in the London area and the Birmingham area. Although they could be used in a variety of tasks and performed these tasks well, it was recognized that there were already suitable locomotives for all of their tasks. Their withdrawals took place between 1930 and 1934.

General
Built1900-1903
ManufacturerSwindon
Axle config2-4-2 (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Water capacity2,222 us gal
Fuel capacity6,720 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power775 hp (578 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Starting effort17,116 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area21.4 sq ft
Firebox area124.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,437.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,562 sq ft
Total heating area1,562 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
William Dean
last changed: 02/2024
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