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Tank Locomotives 2-4-4T, 4-4-4T und 2-4-6T[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 1'B2', 2'B2' and 1'B3'
Bavarian D XII (Pt 2/5 N) and Palatinate Railways Pt 2II
German Reichsbahn class 730-1
Germany | 1897 | 174 produced
Bavarian D XII
Bavarian D XII
Die Lokomotive, September 1906

The class D XII tank locomotives were mainly built for the branch lines that ran from Munich into the mountains. At the time they were put into service, they were one of the most powerful tank locomotives and were also purchased by the Pfalzbahn and the Reichseisenbahnen Alsace-Lorraine.

The wheel arrangement 2-4-4T was chosen for the engines in order to be able to accommodate larger quantities of coal and water and to decouple the adhesive weight as far as possible from the filling level of the supplies. The leading axle and the first coupled axle were combined into a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie, while the driving axle had weakened wheel flanges and the rear bogie was mounted so that it could move 27 mm to the sides. As was to be expected, this design resulted in very smooth running.

Palatine Pt 2<sup>II</sup>
Palatine Pt 2II
Die Lokomotive, June 1906

Production for the Bavarian State Railways began in 1897 and included a total of 96 units, two of which were handed over to the Pfalzbahn in 1916. Between 1900 and 1903, 31 engines designated as P 2II had already been procured there, which were almost identical in construction to the D XII. In Alsace-Lorraine, a total of 37 units were procured between 1903 and 1912, which were initially designated as the T 5 and later as the T 7. If necessary, the latter were also used to transport express trains over short distances between their own network and the Palatinate network.

As successor, superheated Pt 2/5 H from 1906 was considered. However, the trial use showed that this brought hardly any advantages compared to the D XII, which was attributed to the low adhesive weight. So it remained a one-off and nine more examples of the previous design were made in the following year, which were now designated Pt 2/5 N.

Except for the two locomotives that were sold, all remaining 94 D XII were taken over by the Reichsbahn in 1925 and classified as class 730-1. They were given the numbers 73 031 to 73 124, since the Palatinate locomotives had already been given the numbers 001 to 028. The nine newest units were given numbers 131 to 139. Most units were retired by 1941, but the last ones only did so in the years after the war.

VariantD XIIPt 2/5 N
General
Built1897-19031907-1912
ManufacturerKrauss, Maffei
Axle config2-4-4T (Boston/Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length38 ft 10 9/16 in39 ft 1 5/8 in
Wheelbase28 ft 10 7/16 in
Service weight151,678 lbs148,812 lbs
Adhesive weight63,493 lbs66,139 lbs
Axle load32,187 lbs33,069 lbs
Water capacity2,404 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power536 hp (400 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort15,852 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter64.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 11/16 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area21.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,125.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,125.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
secondary line
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
French Northern Railway No. 2.231 to 2.305
French State Railway 222 TA 1 to 75
France | 1901 | 75 produced
222 T 2.245 on an old postcard
222 T 2.245 on an old postcard

A problem on the Paris suburban routes of the Nord was that the previously existing tank locomotives with the wheel arrangement 4-4-0T and 0-4-2T had to be turned at the end stations, which led to unacceptable delays, especially in heavy rush hour traffic. Therefore, between 1901 and 1906, the Nord had a total of 75 tank locomotives built for suburban traffic with a symmetrical wheel arrangement, which had been developed by Gaston du Bousquet. Because these locomotives had a high-mounted, small-diameter boiler, they earned the nickname “Revolver”. Due to the design as 4-4-4T, they had a bogie ahead in both directions, which meant that they could be operated in both directions at a maximum speed of 105 km/h.

A special feature in the cab was that the controls were all duplicated to facilitate operation even when reversing. While the adhesive weight of other locomotives with this wheel arrangement was relatively low, the weight of these locomotives was distributed in such a way that more than half was on the two coupled axles. Thus, the two bogies served to guide rather than carry a large mass while providing sufficient adhesive weight

Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Die Lokomotive, May 1909

The production took place in three batches at La Chapelle in Paris and Hellemmes in Lille. While the water and coal reserves were still 6,500 liters and 3.0 tonnes in the first batch, they were increased to 7,000 liters and 3.5 tonnes in the two following batches. In the SNCF they were listed as 222 TA 1 to 222 TA 75.

General
Built1901-1906
ManufacturerLa Chapelle, Hellemmes
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length35 ft 8 1/2 in
Wheelbase28 ft 8 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 10 1/16 in
Empty weight108,026 lbs
Service weight138,869 lbs
Adhesive weight71,209 lbs
Axle load35,605 lbs
Water capacity1,717 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power704 hp (525 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Top speed65 mph
Starting effort15,284 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter65.5 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area21 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,337.1 sq ft
Total heating area1,337.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 02/2022
Illinois Central classes 213 and 223
United States | 1880 | 18 produced
No. 1421 (Class 223/1409) in July 1926 at Chicago
No. 1421 (Class 223/1409) in July 1926 at Chicago
Paul W. Prescott

Between 1880 and 1890, the Illinois Central purchased a total of 18 Forneys with a 2-4-4T wheel arrangement for suburban service in Chicago. These were made up of two classes that only differed in details and weight. These were six class 213 locomotives built by Rogers in 1880 and twelve class 223 locomotives built directly by the Illinois Central in the Paducah Shops beginning in 1885.

Since the class 223 was heavier than the class 213, the older locomotives were rebuilt in a similar manner. The suburban lines were electrified between 1926 and 1932, which led to the locomotives being transferred to switching service. However, it only took until 1935 for all to be retired. Preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum is 201, originally numbered 213 and participating in the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

Variant213213 rebuilt223
General
Built188018831885, 1887-1890
ManufacturerRogersPaducah
Axle config2-4-4T (Boston/Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase27 ft 8 in31 ft 8 in31 ft 10 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft
Service weight107,600 lbs117,000 lbs117,200 lbs
Adhesive weight49,000 lbs56,000 lbs56,100 lbs
Water capacity1,550 us gal1,500 us gal
Fuel capacity7,000 lbs (coal)4,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power250 hp (186 kW)275 hp (205 kW)
Optimal speed13 mph15 mph
Starting effort11,862 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter56.5 in
Boiler pressure140 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area12.7 sq ft13.3 sq ft14 sq ft
Firebox area98 sq ft90 sq ft
Tube heating area820 sq ft887 sq ft886 sq ft
Evaporative heating area918 sq ft977 sq ft976 sq ft
Total heating area918 sq ft977 sq ft976 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Forney
last changed: 01/2024
Lithuanian series Tk
Lithuania | 1932 | 4 produced
Rakow, „Lokomotiven der inländischen Eisenbahnen 1845-1955”

One of the few locomotive types that the independent Lithuanian State Railways procured between the world wars was the Tk, built by Škoda. It was a four-coupled tank locomotive that had a leading axle and a bogie at the rear. The bogie ensured that the supplies could be relatively large with 4.5 m³ of coal and 12 m³ of water. With a coupling wheel diameter of 1,600 mm, speeds of up to 90 km/h could be reached. Four pieces were made, which were numbered 11 to 14.

Although tank locomotives with this wheel arrangement were mainly used in suburban traffic in other countries, the Tk was mainly used outside of the large cities and was even used in front of express trains. So they pulled the express train from Berlin to Daugavpils in Latvia for at least 143 km from border to border through the rather small country. From 1939 they were replaced in this role by the Pacific Tender Locomotives Gp. After the Second World War, both surviving pieces had to be handed over to the Soviet Union. One engine each remained in the GDR and in Poland, both of which were no longer in regular service.

General
Built1932
ManufacturerŠkoda
Axle config2-4-4T (Boston/Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 0 7/16 in
Service weight182,763 lbs
Adhesive weight78,484 lbs
Water capacity3,170 us gal
Fuel capacity9,921 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power939 hp (700 kW)
Optimal speed23 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort26,340 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 19 11/16 x 24 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area21.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,131.3 sq ft
Superheater area414.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,545.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 06/2022
Metropolitan class H
London & North Eastern class H2
Great Britain | 1920 | 8 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The Metropolitan Railway's class H was a tank locomotive for fast passenger services between the suburbs of London and the town of Aylesbury. It was developed as a “double ender” with two driving axles because the 0-6-4T class G had a rigid wheelbase that was too long for the tight curves in the suburbs.

In 1920 and 1921 Kerr, Stuart & Co. delivered a total of eight. They could easily negotiate curves up to 300 feet (91 m) and were designed for trains of 250 tons. When they were taken over by the LNER in 1923 they became Class H2. In 1941 they were relocated to Nottingham, but between 1942 and 1947 they were all scrapped.

General
Built1920-1921
ManufacturerKerr, Stuart & Co.
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length41 ft 10 1/2 in
Wheelbase33 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 9 in
Service weight172,480 lbs
Adhesive weight87,360 lbs
Axle load43,680 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity11,200 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power925 hp (690 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph
Starting effort18,500 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 19 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area21.4 sq ft
Firebox area132 sq ft
Tube heating area1,025 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,157 sq ft
Superheater area268 sq ft
Total heating area1,425 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
Charles Jones
last changed: 01/2024
North Eastern class D
London & North Eastern class H1
Great Britain | 1913 | 45 produced
flickr/stratfordman72

The North Eastern Railway's class D was developed by Vincent Raven for rural passenger trains. In order to achieve equally good running characteristics in both directions of travel, he chose a tank locomotive with a 4-4-4T wheel arrangement. Three cylinders ensured smoother acceleration. Although there were only two axles available for traction, the coefficient of adhesion of more than four indicated that there was enough traction for starting without slipping.

In 1913 the first 20 were built in Darlington. Another 25 followed after the war in the years 1920 to 1922. The LNER took over the locomotives as class H1. Between 1931 and 1936, all were rebuilt to a 4-6-2T wheel arrangement. These were designated class A8 and were retired between 1957 and 1960.

General
Built1913, 1920-1922
ManufacturerDarlington
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase34 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft
Service weight189,840 lbs
Adhesive weight89,040 lbs
Axle load44,520 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity8,960 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power850 hp (634 kW)
Optimal speed26 mph
Starting effort20,928 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 16 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area23 sq ft
Firebox area124 sq ft
Tube heating area935 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,059 sq ft
Superheater area273 sq ft
Total heating area1,332 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Sir Vincent Litchfield Raven
last changed: 04/2024
Hungarian State Railways series 242
Hungary | 1936 | 4 produced

Since the expected number of passengers in express traffic in the 1930s was low and the existing tracks did not allow high axle loads anyway, the Hungarian State Railways developed a light streamlined tank locomotive. With one bogie in front and one behind, the four locomotives were allowed to travel 120 km/h in both directions. A speed of 152 km/h was reached during a test drive and in 1961, after the installation of a double blast pipe, even 160 km/h were reached. As with German streamlined locomotives, the panels were later cut out in the area of the wheels.

General
Built1936, 1940
ManufacturerMÁVAG
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length46 ft 10 in
Wheelbase35 ft 8 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 2 in
Empty weight144,286 lbs
Service weight188,164 lbs
Adhesive weight64,463 lbs
Axle load32,375 lbs
Water capacity2,642 us gal
Fuel capacity9,921 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,475 hp (1,100 kW)
Optimal speed45 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort20,672 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78.7 in
Boiler pressure261 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 25 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area29.6 sq ft
Firebox area133.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,160.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,293.8 sq ft
Superheater area462.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,756.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
tank locomotive
last changed: 03/2022
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