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Mallets with less than six coupled axles[Inhalt]
Badenian Local Railways No. 5 to 8
Germany | 1897 | 4 produced
No. 7s in March 1958 in Karlsruhe-Rüppurr
No. 7s in March 1958 in Karlsruhe-Rüppurr
H. Schlafer
General
Built1897-1900
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length29 ft 4 3/8 in
Wheelbase14 ft 9 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase4 ft 5 1/8 in
Service weight81,571 lbs
Adhesive weight81,571 lbs
Water capacity925 us gal
Fuel capacity1,102 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power315 hp (235 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed19 mph
Starting effort12,957 lbf
with start valve15,548 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39.4 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 11 x 19 11/16 in
and LP: 17 11/16 x 19 11/16 in
Boiler
Grate area11 sq ft
Evaporative heating area726.5 sq ft
Total heating area726.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
Mallet
last changed: 08 2023
Badenian VIII c
Germany | 1893 | 32 produced
No. 632 on a builder's photo of Esslingen machine factory
No. 632 on a builder's photo of Esslingen machine factory

When a powerful freight locomotive was being searched that could still negotiate curves on the Black Forest Railway, Grafenstaden had the Class VIII c designed after the Mallet design. Only two pre-series locomotives were manufactured there, the production of all others was taken over by MBG Karlsruhe and Maschinenfabrik Esslingen.

Although the ability to negotiate curves was good, the rear axles, which were fixed in the frame, could hardly offer sufficient directional stability for the front bogie that could be shifted laterally due to their short wheel base. In addition to the tendency to slip, which was already present in mallet locomotives, the running smoothness was insufficient. Furthermore, due to the special construction of the running gear, the boiler was somewhat smaller than in comparable standard-design locomotives, which meant that the machines did not achieve the power of the classes VIII a and VIII b despite their greater weight.

Nevertheless, series production was ordered, and so twelve engines were built in Karlsruhe in 1895 and another 18 in Esslingen in 1899/1900. After the war, eight engines came to France and one to Belgium. The locomotives remaining in Germany were retired by 1925, which is why they were not re-designated as class 5561.

Variantpilot seriesseries
General
Built18931895, 1899-19000
ManufacturerGrafenstadenMBG Karlsruhe, Esslingen
Axle config0-4-4-0 (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 11 13/16 in
Wheelbase19 ft 0 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 8 7/8 in
Empty weight113,758 lbs
Service weight127,427 lbs
Adhesive weight127,427 lbs
Total weight203,046 lbs
Axle load31,857 lbs
Water capacity3,566 us gal3,698 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power671 hp (500 kW)704 hp (525 kW)
Optimal speed37 mph35 mph
Top speed28 mph
Starting effort11,672 lbf12,645 lbf
with start valve14,006 lbf15,174 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi188 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylinderstwo, HP: 15 3/8 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 23 5/8 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area21.1 sq ft20.8 sq ft
Firebox area111.7 sq ft104 sq ft
Tube heating area1,348 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,459.7 sq ft1,451.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,459.7 sq ft1,451.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Mallet
last changed: 01/2022
Bavarian BB I and Palatinate Railways G 4II
Germany | 1896 | 3 produced
Die Lokomotive, December 1906

The BB I was a single Mallet locomotive with a 0-4-4-0 wheel arrangement, which was primarily used to push freight trains on the steep ramps in Franconia. The locomotive built by Maffei was originally intended for the Swedish-Norwegian railways, but was then taken over by the Bavarian State Railways. The Pfalzbahn also procured two identical locomotives in 1896 and designated them as class G 4II.

In contrast to the BB II, which was later built in series, it was a tender locomotive, and it was also much heavier with an axle load of 14 tonnes. The rest of the structural design was similar, with vertical connecting pipes from the steam dome to the high-pressure cylinders in the middle and the low-pressure cylinders in the front. Like other four-axle Mallet locomotives, the machine was notable for its rough running and strong tendency to slip, which is why no more were procured. The same observations were also made at the Pfalzbahn with the two identical machines, whereupon these were only used in part to test new braking systems.

Both operators decided to use eight-coupled locomotives again in the future, as these did not have the weaknesses of the Mallets, despite the somewhat poorer curve running properties. The Reichsbahn number 55 7101 was reserved for a single remaining BB I, but this was no longer taken over due to the decommissioning in 1923. The Palatinate machine, which was still in use up to this point, suffered the same fate.

General
Built1896
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config0-4-4-0 (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length55 ft 8 15/16 in
Wheelbase19 ft 4 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 8 1/8 in
Service weight122,577 lbs
Adhesive weight122,577 lbs
Axle load31,306 lbs
Water capacity3,646 us gal
Fuel capacity12,125 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power671 hp (500 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed40 mph
Starting effort30,365 lbf
with start valve36,438 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52.8 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 16 5/16 x 24 13/16 in
and LP: 25 x 24 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area22.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,324 sq ft
Total heating area1,324 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Mallet
last changed: 04/2022
Bavarian BB II
German Reichsbahn class 987
Germany | 1899 | 31 produced
Maffei

The problem on the Bavarian local railways was that there were very tight curves in some cases, and there were also many inclines and therefore increasingly more powerful locomotives were needed for the ever increasing requirements. For this reason, the BB II was developed, whose coupled axles were not in a common frame for better running characteristics in curves.

As a Mallet-type tank locomotive with only two axles each in the frame and in the bogie, it was ideal for the winding routes. Due to the lack of carrying axles, the running properties at line speed proved to be insufficient. In addition, the locomotive tended to slip and was therefore not always able to fully utilize its power.

Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

Production consisted of a series of 29 machines between 1899 and 1903 and a second series from 1908, in which only two examples were made. The latter were slightly longer and heavier than the previous ones. They were all taken over by the Reichsbahn in 1925 and classified as class 987. However, due to the shortcomings described, most of them were already phased out in the 1930s. The remaining ones were sold to various works railways from around 1940, where the smooth running of the machines was not a problem. The former 98 727, which was sold to Südzucker AG in 1943, is now being kept operational by the Darmstadt-Kranichstein Railway Museum. Due to the advertising character of its former operator, it was nicknamed “Zuckersusi” (“Sugar Susi”).

General
Built1899-1908
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length32 ft 10 1/8 in
Wheelbase17 ft 0 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 3 in
Service weight93,917 lbs
Adhesive weight93,917 lbs
Axle load23,589 lbs
Water capacity1,136 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power375 hp (280 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed28 mph
Starting effort16,578 lbf
with start valve19,894 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 12 3/16 x 20 7/8 in
and LP: 19 5/16 x 20 7/8 in
Boiler
Grate area15.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area728.7 sq ft
Total heating area728.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Mallet
secondary line
last changed: 01/2022
Hejaz Railway No. 210, 211, 213 and 215
Ottoman Empire | 1907 | 4 produced
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, May 1909

Since the Hejaz railway from Damascus to Medina also had steep gradients and tight curves, a powerful locomotive was needed for freight trains. Since the tracks were also light with a gauge of just 1,050 mm, six axles were needed to achieve the necessary power. Since there was a lack of water along the route, the tender had to be big enough. The order went to Henschel in Kassel, where four Mallets were built to meet these requirements.

sectional drawing
sectional drawing
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The six axles were distributed over two chassis groups, the first of which had only two coupled axles and one leading axle. The first coupled axle could also be moved laterally to improve running characteristics in curves. The two chassis groups were coupled to each other, which is not usual with Mallets. The locomotives apparently met the requirements and easily hauled 250-tonne trains over the entire route.

General
Built1907
ManufacturerHenschel
Axle config2-4-6-0 (Mallet) 
Gauge3 ft 5 5/16 in (Narrow gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase28 ft 0 in
Service weight115,584 lbs
Adhesive weight100,910 lbs
Total weight200,257 lbs
Water capacity4,755 us gal
Fuel capacity11,023 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power805 hp (600 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Starting effort17,466 lbf
with start valve20,959 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter42.5 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 12 5/8 x 22 1/16 in
and LP: 20 1/16 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area26.9 sq ft
Firebox area107.6 sq ft
Tube heating area1,657.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,765.3 sq ft
Total heating area1,765.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
Mallet
freight
last changed: 04/2023
Imperial Russian Railways series І
originally series BK
Russia | 1903 | 112 produced
works photo Kolomna

Shortly after the turn of the century, the Central Siberian Railway required powerful passenger locomotives for its winding mountain routes with light rails. In order to ensure sufficient mobility and to comply with the axle loads, the BK was created in the Mallet design with a 2-4-4-0 wheel arrangement. Kolomna initially made five locomotives with compound engines and four with four equal-sized cylinders, which had a slightly larger boiler with a lower pressure.

103 more followed until 1909, all of which had compound engines. They were soon renamed to І by the Russian State Railways. They did not reach a larger number because they had a higher consumption and more complex maintenance than locomotives with a one-piece frame. Nevertheless, they remained in use for a long time, so that the last machine was not retired until 1954.

Variantcompoundsimple
General
Built1903-1909
ManufacturerKolomna
Axle config2-4-4-0 (Vivarais (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length61 ft 3 15/16 in
Length loco34 ft 7 1/8 in
Wheelbase27 ft 6 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 6 15/16 in
Total wheelbase52 ft 0 5/16 in
Empty weight131,506 lbs
Service weight145,064 lbs
Adhesive weight142,859 lbs
Total weight249,122 lbs
Axle load30,203 lbs
Water capacity5,283 us gal
Fuel capacity13,228 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power738 hp (550 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph14 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort25,357 lbf32,948 lbf
with start valve30,428 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.2 in
Boiler pressure174 psi160 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, HP: 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 25 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
four, 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area28.1 sq ft29.7 sq ft
Firebox area124.9 sq ft139.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,767.4 sq ft1,866.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,892.3 sq ft2,006.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,892.3 sq ft2,006.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
Mallet
last changed: 09/2023
Landquart-Davos Railway G 2x2/2
Switzerland | 1891 | 2 produced
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Locomotive Magazine, May 1931
No. 6 “Scaletta”
No. 6 “Scaletta”
Alfred Moser & al., „Der Dampfbetrieb der Schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847—2006”
General
Built1891
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length33 ft 7 9/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft 3 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 3 in
Empty weight80,469 lbs
Service weight98,106 lbs
Adhesive weight98,106 lbs
Axle load22,322 lbs
Water capacity793 us gal
Fuel capacity2,646 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power335 hp (250 kW)
Optimal speed12 mph
Starting effort17,993 lbf
with start valve21,592 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter41.3 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 x 21 5/8 in
and LP: 19 5/16 x 21 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area15.1 sq ft
Firebox area65.7 sq ft
Tube heating area863.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area928.9 sq ft
Total heating area928.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
narrow gauge
Mallet
tank locomotive
last changed: 06 2024
Nordhausen-Wernigerode Railway No. 11 to 22
German Reichsbahn class 99590
Germany | 1897 | 12 produced
99 5901, the former number 11, in January 2016 at the Wernigerode depot
99 5901, the former number 11, in January 2016 at the Wernigerode depot
Diesellokophren
General
Built1897-1901
ManufacturerJung, Mecklenburgische Waggonfabrik AG
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length29 ft 1 7/16 in
Wheelbase15 ft 1 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase4 ft 7 1/8 in
Empty weight61,729 lbs
Service weight74,957 lbs
Adhesive weight74,957 lbs
Axle load18,739 lbs
Water capacity1,321 us gal
Fuel capacity3,307 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power255 hp (190 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed19 mph
Starting effort14,992 lbf
with start valve17,990 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39.4 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 11 1/4 x 19 11/16 in
and LP: 16 3/4 x 19 11/16 in
Boiler
Grate area15 sq ft
Firebox area56.4 sq ft
Tube heating area660.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area716.7 sq ft
Total heating area716.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
narrow gauge
Mallet
tank locomotive
last changed: 08 2023
Nordhausen-Wernigerode Railway No. 51 and 52
German Reichsbahn class 99601
Germany | 1922 | 2 produced
Decorated locomotive for Walpurgis Night 1932 on the way to the Brocken
Decorated locomotive for Walpurgis Night 1932 on the way to the Brocken
Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-13442 / CC-BY-SA 3.0

The Nordhausen-Wernigeroder Eisenbahn, better known for the Brocken Railway in the Harz mountains, got two Mallets from Borsig in 1922 and 1924. They had a 2-4-4-2 wheel arrangement and were fairly heavy for meter gauge. Due to the very short rigid wheelbase of only 1,300 mm (4 ft 3 in), they had insufficient running characteristics and tended to derail. Furthermore, they were not reliable.

In 1949, both were taken over by the Reichsbahn as 99 6011 and 6012. They were put out of service in the Harz in 1956. 99 6011 was brought to the Gera-Pforten–Wuitz-Mumsdorf line and only used there for a brief period. It was ultimately retired in 1966, as it had been the case with 99 6012 already in 1964.

General
Built1922, 1924
ManufacturerBorsig
Axle config2-4-4-2T (Skookum (Mallet)) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length33 ft 11 1/2 in
Wheelbase25 ft 7 1/16 in
Fixed wheelbase4 ft 3 3/16 in
Empty weight95,901 lbs
Service weight116,845 lbs
Adhesive weight85,980 lbs
Axle load21,495 lbs
Water capacity1,585 us gal
Fuel capacity5,512 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power644 hp (480 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph
Top speed19 mph
Starting effort23,094 lbf
with start valve27,713 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter33.5 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 14 3/16 x 15 3/4 in
and LP: 22 1/16 x 15 3/4 in
Boiler
Grate area21.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area924.5 sq ft
Superheater area236.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,161.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
narrow gauge
Mallet
last changed: 05/2024
Rhaetian Railway G 2/2+2/3
Switzerland | 1896 | 2 produced
No. 23 “Maloja”
No. 23 “Maloja”
Alfred Moser & al., „Der Dampfbetrieb der Schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847—2006”
General
Built1896
ManufacturerSLM
Axle config0-4-4-2T (Swiss (Mallet)) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length33 ft 11 3/16 in
Wheelbase21 ft 7 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 3 in
Empty weight80,469 lbs
Service weight98,106 lbs
Adhesive weight88,626 lbs
Axle load22,267 lbs
Water capacity898 us gal
Fuel capacity2,646 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power416 hp (310 kW)
Optimal speed13 mph
Starting effort21,002 lbf
with start valve25,202 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter41.3 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 x 21 5/8 in
and LP: 19 5/16 x 21 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area14 sq ft
Firebox area75.3 sq ft
Tube heating area850.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area925.7 sq ft
Total heating area925.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
narrow gauge
Mallet
tank locomotive
last changed: 09 2023
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