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Norwegian Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
Dunderland Iron Ore Company No. A3 and A4
Norwegian State Railways type 54a
Norway | 1902 | 2 produced
A4 on a factory photo
A4 on a factory photo

Four tank locomotives were ordered for the opening of the Dunderlandsbane by the British mining company DIOC, of which the two larger ones came from Kerr, Stuart & Co. They had the wheel arrangement 2-6-2T and were adapted to the climate in Norway with a closed cab. When the Dunderlandsbane was integrated into the NSB network in 1947, these locomotives were also taken over. They now became the Type 54a, the last of which was in service until 1957.

General
Built1902
ManufacturerKerr, Stuart & Co.
Axle config2-6-2T (Prairie) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length32 ft 11 11/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft
Empty weight78,264 lbs
Service weight110,231 lbs
Adhesive weight85,980 lbs
Axle load28,660 lbs
Water capacity1,958 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power325 hp (242 kW)
Optimal speed12 mph
Top speed25 mph
Starting effort17,854 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area15.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area853.5 sq ft
Total heating area853.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
freight
last changed: 04/2023
Norwegian State Railways type 15
Norway | 1896 | 16 produced
15c No. 125
15c No. 125
NJK fotosamling
Variant15 arebuilt 15 erebuilt 15 h
General
Built1896-1902
ManufacturerDübs & Co., Hartmann, Nylands, Thunes, Hamar Jernstøberi, SLM
Axle config2-6-0 (Mogul) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length47 ft 4 3/16 in
Total wheelbase38 ft 0 5/16 in
Empty weight73,855 lbs81,791 lbs71,650 lbs
Adhesive weight64,375 lbs70,107 lbs63,052 lbs
Total weight130,954 lbs138,671 lbs128,750 lbs
Water capacity2,034 us gal1,849 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power335 hp (250 kW)436 hp (325 kW)469 hp (350 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph23 mph17 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort12,047 lbf18,024 lbf
with start valve14,456 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 16 3/4 x 24 in
and LP: 25 x 24 in
two, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area13.6 sq ft
Tube heating area885.9 sq ft682.4 sq ft
Superheater area175.5 sq ft484.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 08 2023
Norwegian State Railways type 18
Norway | 1900 | 35 produced
Type 18c No. 255 in July 2006 at Garnes
Type 18c No. 255 in July 2006 at Garnes
Nelson50

The first four examples of the type 18a were built in 1900 by Hartmann in Chemnitz for the Norwegian Northern Railway. Another four followed the next year, which were also to be used on other routes, and in 1903 two more followed, which were manufactured in Norway by the Hamar iron foundry. These were saturated locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement and two-cylinder compound engine. The axle load of the coupled axles was almost twelve tonnes each and the top speed was 60 km/h. In 1907, six more locomotives followed, which were a bit heavier and were therefore designated as Type 18b.

A total of 19 examples of the Type 18c were produced between 1910 and 1919 as a result of a major revision. They were designed using superheated steam technology and had a simple two-cylinder engine without compound action. At the same time, the boiler pressure was reduced from 13 to 12 bars and the speed could be increased to 65 km/h. Almost all of the type 18a and 18b locomotives were subsequently converted, some of which did not happen until 1948. From this point on, it wasn't long before the locomotives were relegated to lower roles and retired in the 1960s. The 18c with the number 255 from 1913 is still operational today after being refurbished between 1980 and 1992.

Variant18a18b18c
General
Built1900-1919
ManufacturerHartmann, Hamar Jernstøberi
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length51 ft 3 3/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft 6 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 11 7/8 in
Total wheelbase43 ft 5 5/8 in
Empty weight100,972 lbs102,956 lbs
Service weight110,451 lbs113,317 lbs
Adhesive weight77,382 lbs79,366 lbs
Total weight172,622 lbs175,488 lbs
Water capacity2,906 us gal
Fuel capacity7,716 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power825 hp (615 kW)
Optimal speed34 mph37 mph22 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort15,351 lbf14,391 lbf23,760 lbf
with start valve18,421 lbf17,269 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter56.9 in
Boiler pressure186 psi174 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 17 11/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 26 3/8 x 25 9/16 in
two, 18 7/8 x 25 9/16 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 02/2022
Norwegian State Railways types 19a and 28a, b
Norway | 1902 | 11 produced
28a No. 151 in the SLM type sheet
28a No. 151 in the SLM type sheet
SBB Historic

For the Ofotbanen, which connected the ore mines in Kiruna with the Norwegian port in Narvik, SLM in Switzerland developed the type 19a freight locomotives. These were 2-8-0 two-cylinder compound machines, which were the SLM's most powerful machines to date. To accommodate a wide firebox, the boiler was mounted high. After testing on the Gotthard, the six were delivered to Norway. In 1909 and 1910 three more were built in Norway by Hamar Jernstøberi.

In 1911, two more were built at Hamar, which now were superheated two-cylinder simples. They were designated Type 28a and initially remained two in number. When the Ofotbanen was electrified in 1922, the steam locomotives were relocated to other regions. It was only between 1939 and 1945 that the six remaining members of type 19a were also superheated and simpled and designated type 28b. They were withdrawn between 1955 and 1960.

Variant19a28a, rebuilt 28b
General
Built1902, 1909-19101911, 1939-1945
ManufacturerSLM, Hamar JernstøberiHamar Jernstøberi
Axle config2-8-0 (Consolidation) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 9 1/2 in55 ft 6 15/16 in
Wheelbase21 ft 11 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 3 1/4 in
Empty weight140,214 lbs
Service weight157,741 lbs
Adhesive weight136,686 lbs
Total weight233,910 lbs
Axle load34,172 lbs
Water capacity3,963 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)13,228 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power872 hp (650 kW)1,073 hp (800 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph15 mph
Top speed25 mph28 mph
Starting effort26,530 lbf45,775 lbf
with start valve31,836 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.2 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 21 5/8 x 25 3/16 in
and LP: 32 5/16 x 25 3/16 in
two, 23 5/8 x 25 3/16 in
Boiler
Grate area30.1 sq ft
Firebox area125.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,786.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,912.7 sq ft1,620 sq ft
Superheater area493 sq ft
Total heating area1,912.7 sq ft2,113 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 02/2024
Norwegian State Railways type 25
Norway | 1901 | 42 produced
A unit in the port of Trondheim
A unit in the port of Trondheim
Stadtarchiv Trondheim
Variant25 a25 b25 d25 e
General
Built1901, 1909-1922
ManufacturerHamar Jernstøberi, Baldwin, Thunes, Norsk Maskin Industri, SLM
Axle config0-6-0T (Six-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length28 ft 5 5/16 in
Wheelbase10 ft 2 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 2 13/16 in
Empty weight57,100 lbs54,454 lbs61,288 lbs55,556 lbs
Service weight77,162 lbs73,855 lbs79,807 lbs73,193 lbs
Adhesive weight77,162 lbs73,855 lbs79,807 lbs73,193 lbs
Axle load25,794 lbs24,692 lbs26,676 lbs24,471 lbs
Water capacity1,400 us gal1,215 us gal1,110 us gal
Fuel capacity2,646 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power268 hp (200 kW)402 hp (300 kW)369 hp (275 kW)
Optimal speed12 mph18 mph17 mph
Top speed25 mph
Starting effort14,014 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter41.7 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 3/16 x 19 11/16 in
Boiler
Grate area12.6 sq ft
Tube heating area624.3 sq ft592 sq ft505.9 sq ft679.2 sq ft
Superheater area236.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
switcher
tank locomotive
secondary line
last changed: 09 2023
Norwegian State Railways type 26
Norway | 1910 | 22 produced
Works photo of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works
Works photo of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works
SBB Historic

The Bergensbane, or Bergen Railway, connects Oslo with Bergen and, despite a large number of tunnels, has challenging gradients, so that the express trains at the beginning of the century had to rely on pilot locomotives. For this reason, the NSB launched an invitation to tender for a powerful express train locomotive that should be able to cover this route without double-heading. The route has a constant gradient of 2 to 2.1 percent over a length of 70 km, which culminates at an altitude of 1301.7 meters at Lake Taugevatn and has curve radii of 180 meters. However, the tracks required a maximum axle load of twelve tonnes, while a locomotive with four cylinders was specified to further reduce the loads on the rails.

The winner of this tender was the locomotive later designated as the type 26, which was designed by the Schweizerische Lokomotivfabrik in Winterthur. The required power was achieved with four coupled axles and a leading bogie. Thanks to the boiler being placed very high, it was possible to accommodate a wide firebox without a trailing axle. The locomotives were able to haul trains weighing 200 tonnes at 35 km/h on the aforementioned incline.

The three locomotives delivered by SLM in 1910 were designated type 26a and were, however, somewhat lighter than expected. In order to be able to fully utilize the available axle load, two more units were ordered from Thune in Oslo, which were a bit heavier and were designated type 26b. The largest sub-series with 17 units was the type 26c, which was designed as a compound machine due to the high steam consumption of the four cylinders. It was supplied by several manufacturers between 1919 and 1924.

Schematic drawing
Schematic drawing
Locomotive Magazine, August 1917

As early as 1915, the type 26 locomotives were withdrawn from the Bergen Railway, as the latter had been converted for a higher axle load and the heavier type 31 locomotives were now being used there. Thanks to the small coupling wheels, they were suitable for all types of trains and were therefore used in different parts of Norway in different roles. Rebuilds took the form of an oil-fired engine in the 1950s and the fitting of an engine with a larger boiler in 1961. The locos survived until 1969, when the last year of steam service in Norway had struck. Two pieces were kept in reserve in 1970 in case diesel locomotives failed.

Variant26a26b26c
General
Built191019111919-1924
ManufacturerSLMThunesMotala Verkstad, NoHAB, Norsk Maskin Industri, SLM, Hamar Jernstøberi
Axle config4-8-0 (Twelve-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length58 ft 6 3/4 in58 ft 8 15/16 in
Wheelbase27 ft 8 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 1 7/8 in
Total wheelbase49 ft 8 7/16 in
Empty weight123,459 lbs126,766 lbs137,127 lbs
Service weight139,288 lbs144,182 lbs153,882 lbs
Adhesive weight104,234 lbs104,719 lbs107,145 lbs
Total weight219,536 lbs224,430 lbs234,131 lbs
Axle load26,544 lbs
Water capacity3,963 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power972 hp (725 kW)1,073 hp (800 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph29 mph
Top speed43 mph
Starting effort29,869 lbf29,426 lbf23,244 lbf
with start valve27,893 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52.4 in53.2 in
Boiler pressure174 psi188 psi
Expansion typesimplecompound
Cylindersfour, 14 15/16 x 23 5/8 infour, HP: 15 3/8 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 23 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area29.1 sq ft32.3 sq ft
Firebox area109.8 sq ft108.7 sq ft
Tube heating area1,496.2 sq ft1,358.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,606 sq ft1,467.7 sq ft
Superheater area406.9 sq ft407.4 sq ft
Total heating area2,012.8 sq ft1,875.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
passenger
freight
Von Borries compound
last changed: 03/2022
Norwegian State Railways type 31
Norway | 1915 | 27 produced
Type 31a No. 285 shortly after its withdrawal at Oslo
Type 31a No. 285 shortly after its withdrawal at Oslo
Ses

When the Bergen Railway was converted for higher axle loads, more powerful locomotives than the type 26 could be used there. This resulted in the type 31 with the same axle arrangement, but with a higher weight and boiler pressure. In 1915, two locomotives were initially built which, like the types 26a and 26b, had a four-cylinder engine with simple expansion.

Locomotive Magazine, August 1917

The high tractive power that could be achieved for a short period of time by this engine was used to push snow blowers on the Bergen Railway. In 1920, two more identical locomotives followed for the same purpose, which were also supplied by Thunes from Oslo and were designated together with the first two as type 31a.

Sectional drawing
Sectional drawing
Locomotive Magazine, August 1917

As with its predecessor, the majority of locomotives were built with compound engines in order to be able to maintain a similarly high tractive effort over a longer period of time. These locomotives, which were designated as Type 31b, were supplied by various manufacturers between 1923 and 1926 and took over the tasks of the type 26. They thus pulled different train types on the Bergen Railway until the Nohab diesel locomotives of the Di 3 type were introduced there in 1957 and 1958.

They were now distributed to other locations where there was no electrification or where diesel locomotives were not yet available. They spent their final years on branch lines that could withstand the weight of these locos. Only the four type 31a locomotives remained in service until the end of their lives in their traditional role as pusher locomotives for the snow blowers and were not put out of service until 1970.

Variant31a31b
General
Built1915-1926
ManufacturerThunes, NoHAB, Norsk Maskin Industri, Breda, Hamar Jernstøberi
Axle config4-8-0 (Twelve-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length58 ft 1 5/8 in61 ft 2 5/8 in
Wheelbase27 ft 8 11/16 in27 ft 9 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 4 7/8 in16 ft 6 1/16 in
Total wheelbase49 ft 8 7/16 in51 ft 7 5/16 in
Empty weight147,269 lbs156,748 lbs
Service weight165,346 lbs176,370 lbs
Adhesive weight123,238 lbs126,986 lbs
Total weight260,586 lbs271,609 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs31,967 lbs
Water capacity5,283 us gal
Fuel capacity11,023 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power939 hp (700 kW)1,006 hp (750 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph24 mph
Top speed43 mph
Starting effort34,281 lbf26,563 lbf
with start valve31,876 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.1 in
Boiler pressure174 psi186 psi
Expansion typesimplecompound
Cylindersfour, 16 1/8 x 23 5/8 infour, HP: 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 24 13/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area32.3 sq ft
Firebox area128.1 sq ft
Tube heating area2,149.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,277.6 sq ft
Total heating area2,277.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
passenger
freight
Von Borries compound
last changed: 02/2022
Norwegian State Railways type 49 “Dovregubben”
Norway | 1935 | 7 produced
Type 49b No. 465 with clearly visible booster coupling rod
Type 49b No. 465 with clearly visible booster coupling rod
Norsk Jernbaneklubb

The NSB had the largest and most powerful steam locomotives ever used in Norway built to operate the increasingly heavier express trains on the steeply graded Dovre Railway. They became known by the nickname “Dovregubben”. They were built in the 2-8-4 design in order to achieve a high tractive force in addition to be able to accommodate a large firebox, with which a large steam production could be maintained on long inclines. Since high speeds could not be run on the route and traction was more important, the driving wheels were designed with a diameter of just 1,530 mm and a top speed of 90 km/h was enough. Since the total length was also limited due to the existing turntables, the smaller driving wheels also made it possible to accommodate the four driving axles. These were necessary in order to be able to maintain the maximum axle load of 15.5 tonnes on the mountain routes. The engine was designed with four cylinders and compound action.

The first two machines, later designated type 49a, were delivered by Hamar and Thune in June and September 1935. Despite the small wheels, one reached 115 km/h at a press tour. The pronounced lightweight construction of the entire locomotive led to problems in some places, which was improved by adapting some parts. The one-off type 49b, which was also built in Norway, followed the next year. The bogie had an engageable booster with drive on both axles in order to provide additional tractive power for starting and on steep inclines.

Two of the Type 49c were delivered by Krupp in 1940 and two by Thunes in 1941. These had no booster and were similar to the 49a, but with some detail improvements. This included making the cylinders smaller in order to save weight and to strengthen the axles at the same time. Seven more were destroyed in a bombing raid on the Krupp factory in World War II, four others were never completed in Norway and were used as spare parts donors.

Sectional drawing of type 49c
Sectional drawing of type 49c
Die Lokomotive, September 1941

Due to the four cylinders, the locomotives were very demanding in terms of maintenance, but were able to fully convince in terms of their performance and economy. The economy was even certified in Germany by the Grunewald Locomotive Testing facility during tests with one of the locomotives built by Krupp. When the NSB introduced the Di 3 diesel locomotives, they were initially used together with the type 49. It quickly became apparent that the steam locomotives could maintain their speed much better on long inclines than the diesel locomotives with 1,900 hp. However, since the latter were much easier to maintain, all type 49 were retired by 1958.

Variant49a49b49c
General
Built193519361940-1941
ManufacturerHamar Jernstøberi, ThunesKrupp, Thunes
Axle config2-8-4 (Berkshire) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length72 ft 2 1/8 in73 ft 0 15/16 in
Wheelbase37 ft 11 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 0 5/16 in
Total wheelbase60 ft 5 3/8 in61 ft 1 1/4 in
Empty weight192,243 lbs204,368 lbs195,329 lbs
Service weight217,155 lbs229,060 lbs218,257 lbs
Adhesive weight137,568 lbs138,450 lbs136,466 lbs
Total weight334,000 lbs345,905 lbs337,527 lbs
Axle load34,172 lbs34,613 lbs34,172 lbs
Water capacity7,185 us gal7,212 us gal
Fuel capacity18,519 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,564 hp (1,912 kW)2,288 hp (1,706 kW)
Optimal speed38 mph39 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort43,026 lbf37,493 lbf
with start valve51,631 lbf44,992 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60.2 in
Boiler pressure247 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 18 5/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 28 3/8 x 27 9/16 in
four, HP: 17 5/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 25 9/16 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area53.8 sq ft
Firebox area231.4 sq ft
Tube heating area2,524.1 sq ft2,534.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,755.6 sq ft2,766.3 sq ft
Superheater area1,097.9 sq ft
Total heating area3,853.5 sq ft3,864.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
passenger
freight
Von Borries compound
booster
last changed: 03/2024
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