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Manchurian Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
South Manchurian Railway Amei class
China Railway AM1
Manchuria | 1906 | 4 produced
No. 51 on an ALCO factory photo
No. 51 on an ALCO factory photo
General
Built1906
ManufacturerALCO
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight128,529 lbs
Adhesive weight88,846 lbs
Axle load44,533 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power805 hp (600 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Starting effort18,907 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area26 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 10 2023
South Manchurian Railway Pashisa and Pashiha class
China Railway SL3 and SL4
Manchuria | 1919 | 195 produced
Locomotive no. 1523 from the last series in a factory photo by Kisha Seizo
Locomotive no. 1523 from the last series in a factory photo by Kisha Seizo

The South Manchurian Railway, commonly called “Mantetsu”, needed new locomotives to resume express train service after World War I. In 1919, six engines designed for burning lignite were ordered from Baldwin in the USA. Mantetsu gave them the name “Pashishi”, which came from the Japanese pronunciation of “Pacific”. Internally, the class was called G2, with the numbers 900 to 905. As more locomotives were soon needed, the design was improved and from 1921 23 more examples of the class G3 were produced with parts imported from Baldwin. They were given the numbers 920 to 942 and were completed by 1927. To distinguish between the different Pacific series, the G2 and G3 were combined under the class name “Pashisa”.

Although the 1919-1927 engines were quickly pushed into regular passenger service by the Pashiko class, new series were commissioned in the 1930s. They had only a few differences from the original engines, which were limited to using as many identical parts as possible with the Mikados procured at the same time. The new series were now dubbed the Pashisa class, while the older ones were renamed the Pashiha class. Between 1934 and 1940, 16 examples were built for the Mantetsu and 80 for the Manchukuo State Railway (NMR). The last 70 pieces of the MNR had a larger firebox and were called “New National Small Pashi” to distinguish them. From 1938 until the end of the war they were operated by the Japanese-controlled North China Railway.

After the Second World War, all of the Mantetsu engines were still in existence. The 29 examples of the older series were located in China and were included in the inventory of the state railway as SL4. The 16 examples of the newer series were all in Korea and later remained in North Korea, where they were probably in service until the late 1960s. Of the original 80 NMR units, the Chinese State Railways were only able to add 30 to their inventory. These were designated SL3s and distributed among several directorates in Northeast China. In 1980, twelve were still known to be in use.

VariantSL4 G2SL4 G3New MNR Small Pashi
General
Built19191921-19271936-1940
ManufacturerBaldwinDalianHitachi, Kisha Seizō
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length70 ft 6 3/8 in
Service weight207,001 lbs211,203 lbs200,620 lbs
Adhesive weight126,001 lbs130,800 lbs128,926 lbs
Total weight327,000 lbs
Water capacity6,340 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal21,164 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,475 hp (1,100 kW)1,676 hp (1,250 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph33 mph37 mph
Starting effort33,187 lbf28,668 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in68.9 in
Boiler pressure180 psi203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 24 x 26 intwo, 21 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area47 sq ft43.8 sq ft49.2 sq ft
Firebox area171.4 sq ft214.2 sq ft218.5 sq ft
Tube heating area2,252.6 sq ft1,680.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,423.9 sq ft1,894.4 sq ft1,898.8 sq ft
Superheater area590.2 sq ft480.1 sq ft
Total heating area3,014.1 sq ft2,374.5 sq ft2,378.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 03/2022
South Manchurian Railway Pashiko class
China Railway SL5
Manchuria | 1927 | 11 produced
No. 292 in the Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum
No. 292 in the Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum
Manfred Kopka

When the power and speed of the existing Pacific locomotives were no longer sufficient, the development of more powerful locomotives was started. In 1927, locomotive designer Nobutarō Yoshino had just returned to Japan from the United States after spending some time at ALCO. Based on his findings, the Pashiko class was developed and eleven copies were built at the Shahekou plant in Dalian.

On the one hand, power was increased by enlarging the firebox and cylinders, as was common in the USA at the time. In addition, modern construction principles were used, which included a boiler with a combustion chamber and a stoker. The top speed was increased in line with the increase in output thanks to a ten centimeter larger diameter of the coupled wheels

On the South Manchurian Railway they pulled the most important express trains. This included the train between Dalian and Changchun, which completed the route in two hours less with this locomotive. They were only surpassed by the Pashina class streamlined Pacifics. After the Second World War, the Chinese State Railways classified them as class SL5. They initially pulled passenger trains and individual vehicles could still be observed around 1980 in use for minor tasks.

General
Built1927-1928
ManufacturerShahekou
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight225,621 lbs
Adhesive weight140,941 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,414 hp (1,800 kW)
Optimal speed44 mph
Starting effort35,024 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72.8 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 23 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area51.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Nobutarō Yoshino
last changed: 03/2022
South Manchurian Railway Pashiro class
China Railway SL6
Manchuria | 1933 | 254 produced
Kawasaki works photo
Kawasaki works photo

Some similar types of Pacific locomotives were combined in the Pashiro class, which were built from 1933 by various manufacturers for several railway companies with a focus on Manchuria. The vast majority were of a type built by Kawasaki, Nippon Sharyo and Hitachi for the Manchukuo State Railways. They were called “New National Great Pashi” to distinguish them from the Pashisa class. Mantetsu procured 45 examples, some of which were built in Dalian. Eight pieces went to the Central China Railway, which used them under the designation KC100.

Compared to the Pacifics previously used in Manchuria, the major innovations consisted of a boiler with a combustion chamber and a feedwater heater. With a locomotive operating weight of just over 100 tonnes, they were also heavier and at the same time they had a larger tender. The engines of Mantetsu received the largest tender with an operating weight of more than 83 tonnes, the tenders of the other operators weighed between 71 and 73 tonnes when loaded. With the 57 examples built directly for the North China Railway during the war, there were a total of 254 units by 1944.

After World War II, there were a few locomotives in Korea that were among the 25 originally loaned by the Manchukuo State Railways to what was then Chosen. The Chinese State Railways took over well over 200 examples and classified them as SL6s. Due to the lack of more modern locomotive types, another 151 units were built between 1956 and 1958. The locomotives were eventually used throughout China and were essential for passenger service. The last ones were even used until 1991.

VariantPashiroLarge PashiNew Large PashiSL6
General
Built1934-194319331936-19401956-1958
ManufacturerHitachi, Kawasaki, ShahekouKawasaki, Hitachi, Nippon Sharyō, Kisha SeizōKawasaki, Hitachi, Nippon SharyōSifang
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length77 ft 11 3/4 in73 ft 5 1/2 in73 ft 6 13/16 in74 ft 2 1/2 in
Service weight224,937 lbs221,939 lbs220,969 lbs
Adhesive weight136,135 lbs137,149 lbs
Total weight408,428 lbs378,467 lbs382,898 lbs380,451 lbs
Water capacity9,246 us gal6,604 us gal7,925 us gal
Fuel capacity33,069 lbs (coal)37,479 lbs (coal)30,865 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,146 hp (1,600 kW)2,414 hp (1,800 kW)
Optimal speed42 mph47 mph
Starting effort32,788 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68.9 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 22 7/16 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area51.9 sq ft52.1 sq ft
Firebox area243.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,905.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,148.5 sq ft2,077.8 sq ft
Superheater area723.3 sq ft1,044.4 sq ft
Total heating area2,871.8 sq ft3,122.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
last changed: 03/2022
South Manchurian Railway Pashina class
China Railway SL7
Manchuria | 1934 | 12 produced
No. 797 was the 1,500<sup>th</sup> Locomotive from Kawasaki and bears the appropriate inscription here
No. 797 was the 1,500th Locomotive from Kawasaki and bears the appropriate inscription here
Japanese National Diet Library

After Nobutarō Yoshino had already brought his experiences from ALCO in the development of Pashiko, he designed the Pashina as his true masterpiece. As the name suggests, it was again a Pacific that was particularly heavy in this case. It was one of the first steam locomotives with a complete streamlined cladding that was painted here in Prussian blue. This brought it the name “black mackerel”.

Analogous to the practices in the USA, the locomotives had a boiler with a large grate and a combustion chamber, a mechanical stoker and a feedwater heater. At the Mantetsu they were also the first locomotives with a superheater after Schmidt patent. They reached a top speed of 140 km/h and were also able to pull heavy express trains at 135 km/h.

No. 981 with improved fairing from the wind tunnel
No. 981 with improved fairing from the wind tunnel
Kawasaki

The service area of the Pashina was the prestigious Asia Limited, which ran between Dalian and Harbin. The Japanese occupying powers used the train for propaganda purposes to demonstrate the superiority of Japanese culture to the population of Manchuria. So the train and the locomotive in particular were found on stamps, postcards and even in school books.

Three engines were created in the Mantetetsu workshops in Shahekou and eight others at Kawasaki. A twelfth engine was created again at Kawasaki in 1936, whereby an optimized form of streamlined cladding was developed in the wind tunnel of the aircraft manufacturer Kawanishi.

The Asia Limited was discontinued in 1943 due to the war and the locomotives were now used for conventional express trains. From 1949 they were used by the China Railway and were called SL7 from 1959. The streamlined cladding was partially removed to simplify maintenance. The regular use ended in the eighties and two engines were preserved. One of them is fully functional and like the other machine it is located in the museum in Shenyang.

General
Built1934, 1936
ManufacturerShahekou, Kawasaki
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length84 ft 2 13/16 in
Service weight262,791 lbs
Adhesive weight158,292 lbs
Total weight448,199 lbs
Axle load52,911 lbs
Water capacity9,774 us gal
Fuel capacity33,069 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,353 hp (2,500 kW)
Optimal speed50 mph
Top speed87 mph
Starting effort43,067 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78.7 in
Boiler pressure225 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 25 3/16 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area67.3 sq ft
Firebox area315.3 sq ft
Tube heating area2,671.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,986.3 sq ft
Superheater area1,100.1 sq ft
Total heating area4,086.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
Nobutarō Yoshino
last changed: 01/2023
South Manchurian Railway Mikai and Mikako class
China Railway JF1, Korean National Mika1 and Mika5 class and US Army Transportation Corps class 9400
Manchuria | 1918 | 2,095 produced
Manchukuo Mikai No. 1-1500, later China Railway JF1 501
Manchukuo Mikai No. 1-1500, later China Railway JF1 501
Mandschukuo
VariantMikaiBig MikaMikakoJF1
General
Built1918-19281933-19351935-19451950-1960
ManufacturerALCO, Shahekou, Kawasaki, Kisha Seizō, Nippon Sharyō, Hitachi, Sifang, Dalian, Qiqihar, Taiyuan, Mitsubishi
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length71 ft 10 7/16 in77 ft 11 1/16 in74 ft 3 1/8 in
Service weight217,640 lbs225,466 lbs227,296 lbs228,950 lbs
Adhesive weight167,926 lbs173,327 lbs176,105 lbs176,237 lbs
Total weight408,075 lbs385,478 lbs
Axle load41,983 lbs43,332 lbs44,026 lbs44,059 lbs
Water capacity7,925 us gal6,340 us gal6,340 us gal
Fuel capacity30,865 lbs (coal)21,164 lbs (coal)coal21,164 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,615 hp (1,950 kW)2,749 hp (2,050 kW)2,816 hp (2,100 kW)
Optimal speed37 mph38 mph
Top speed50 mph
Starting effort45,333 lbf46,652 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.9 in
Boiler pressure194 psi203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 23 x 28 intwo, 22 13/16 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area54.5 sq ft54.7 sq ft54.8 sq ft
Firebox area258.3 sq ft
Tube heating area2,117.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,376 sq ft
Superheater area699 sq ft
Total heating area3,075 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 08 2023
South Manchurian Railway Mikaro class
China Railway JF6, Korean National Mika6, North Korean State Railway Migayu and Vietnamese State Railway Giải Phóng 6
Manchuria | 1934 | ca. 475 produced
Manchukuo No. 6648 in a factory photo
Manchukuo No. 6648 in a factory photo
Mandschukuo
General
Built1934-1959
ManufacturerKawasaki, Hitachi, Shahekou, Kisha Seizō, Nippon Sharyō, Shenyang
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length69 ft 6 5/8 in
Service weight207,014 lbs
Adhesive weight146,078 lbs
Total weight323,572 lbs
Axle load36,817 lbs
Water capacity2,536 us gal
Fuel capacity52,911 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,743 hp (1,300 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Top speed50 mph
Starting effort38,954 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.9 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 7/8 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area49.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,851.4 sq ft
Superheater area522 sq ft
Total heating area2,373.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 09 2023
Manchurian Railway Mikasa class
China Railway JF3
Manchuria | 1927 | 19 produced
JF3-2558 in November 1984 at the Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum
JF3-2558 in November 1984 at the Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum
Manfred Kopka

Between 1927 and 1930, three smaller railway companies in Manchuria had a total of 19 Mikado freight locomotives built by Škoda. These were the Qike Railway, the Huhai Railway, and the Sitao Railway. With a simple two-cylinder engine and a driving wheel diameter of around 1,400 mm, they reached a maximum permissible speed of 60 km/h.

After the founding of the Manchukuo state in 1934, the locomotives were first called „Mikani” and then renamed „Mikasa” in 1938, both of which came from the American type designation “Mikado”. In 1951 they were given the designation MK3 by the China Railway and became the JF3 from 1959. Their use probably ended in 1990 and today the number 2558 is in the museum in Shenyang.

General
Built1927-1930
ManufacturerŠkoda
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 8 in
Wheelbase30 ft 6 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 9 3/16 in
Total wheelbase57 ft 10 7/8 in
Service weight182,565 lbs
Adhesive weight137,315 lbs
Total weight298,594 lbs
Water capacity5,944 us gal
Fuel capacity19,842 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,408 hp (1,050 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort33,293 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter55.5 in
Boiler pressure186 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 1/2 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Firebox area183 sq ft
Tube heating area1,876.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,059.1 sq ft
Superheater area473.1 sq ft
Total heating area2,532.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 01/2023
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