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South East Asian Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
Federated Malay States class H
Malayan State Railway class 501
Malaysia | 1906 | 60 produced
H<sup>2</sup> No. 118
H2 No. 118
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The class H of the Federated Malay States Railway refers to a total of 60 light, meter-gauge Pacifics. The first seven were built by Kitson from November 1906. Others followed from Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., six of which went to the Johore State Railway. While the latter were also handed over to the FMSR, further series were created by Kitson and Robert Stephenson.

Since the later deliveries were somewhat heavier due to stronger frames and had further differences in details, the three series were subsequently named H1, H2 and H3. The H1 were withdrawn between 1929 and 1934. Of the newer machines, many were classified as class 501 by the Malayan Railways in 1946.

General
Built1906-1913
ManufacturerKitson & Co., Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Robert Stephenson & Co.
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase25 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 5 in
Total wheelbase48 ft 0 1/2 in
Service weight106,400 lbs
Adhesive weight67,200 lbs
Total weight172,256 lbs
Axle load22,400 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power550 hp (410 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph
Starting effort14,295 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 1/2 x 21 in
Boiler
Grate area18.5 sq ft
Firebox area82.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,152.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,235 sq ft
Total heating area1,235 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 02/2024
Staatsspoorwegen class F10
Indonesia | 1912 | 24 produced
Locomotive Magazine, November 1922

The state railway of the Dutch East Indies on Java had the challenge of moving heavy loads on cape-gauge mountain routes with a maximum axle load of 9.5 tonnes and curve radii of up to 140 meters. To solve these requirements, Hanomag proposed a tank locomotive with six coupled axles in one frame in order to be able to avoid building a Mallet with its disadvantages. Among these disadvantages were listed the tendency to slip, flexible and long steam lines, greater complexity of the running gear and unstable mounting of the boiler.

In the locomotive developed as a result, the four inner coupled axles were all firmly mounted in the frame. Only the first and sixth coupled axles could be moved laterally by 30 mm according to the Gölsdorf system, and the leading and trailing axles could be deflected laterally by 100 mm as Adams axles. The water tanks were drawn low between the frames in a new way. Now the boiler could be placed higher without raising the center of gravity to improve accessibility for maintenance.

Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Locomotive Magazine, August 1912

The last batch was built by Werkspoor in the Netherlands. The total of 24 examples built were the first of only two types with the axle configuration 2-12-2T in history, which is why this wheel arrangement is also known as “Javanic”. On the route for which the locomotives were developed, there was a high level of wear on the wheel flanges. They were then moved to another mountain route that had bigger curve radii. There they did very well.

General
Built1912
ManufacturerHanomag, Werkspoor
Axle config2-12-2T (Javanic) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase42 ft 10 15/16 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 3 5/8 in
Service weight164,465 lbs
Adhesive weight125,663 lbs
Axle load20,944 lbs
Water capacity2,245 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (wood)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power905 hp (675 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph
Starting effort30,938 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter43.4 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 21 1/4 x 20 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area28 sq ft
Firebox area104 sq ft
Tube heating area1,311.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,415.5 sq ft
Superheater area387.5 sq ft
Total heating area1,803 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
tank locomotive
last changed: 06/2022
Federated Malay States class L
Malayan State Railway class 531
Malaysia | 1921 | 20 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

To eliminate the need for double-heading express trains, the FMSR ordered 20 Pacifics from Kitson, which were delivered in 1921. They had a superheated boiler with Belpaire firebox and were among the more powerful meter gauge Pacifics.

During World War II, the Japanese brought five of the locomotives to Burma, but they returned after the war ended. They soon became class 531 and some remained in service until 1971. The 531.01 was the only one that was preserved and is now in front of the National Museum in Kuala Lumpur.

General
Built1921
ManufacturerKitson & Co.
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length56 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 5 in
Service weight198,016 lbs
Adhesive weight80,640 lbs
Total weight124,544 lbs
Axle load26,880 lbs
Water capacity3,002 us gal
Fuel capacity13,552 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,000 hp (746 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph
Starting effort19,652 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area24.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,485 sq ft
Total heating area1,485 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 03/2024
Federated Malay States classes K1 and K2
Malayan State Railway classes 541 and 542
Malaysia | 1927 | 11 produced
Beyer-Peacock variant
Beyer-Peacock variant
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The classes K1 and K2 refer to a total of eleven Pacifics of the Federated Malay States Railways, which were built in 1927 and 1929. They were basically an improved version of the class L which had been delivered by Kitson in 1921. In 1927, Beyer, Peacock & Co. delivered seven and two years later Robert Stephenson & Co. delivered four more.

Robert Stephenson variant
Robert Stephenson variant
flickr/Historical Railway Images

Since the letter K had been occupied by a single other locomotive until recently, the class was initially called “New K”. Later the two series became K1 and K2. During the Second World War, six were probably brought to Siam by the occupiers. The remaining Beyer locomotives were decommissioned in 1958 and 1959, the Stephenson ones only in the 1970s with the end of steam traction in Malaysia.

General
Built1927, 1929
ManufacturerBeyer, Peacock & Co., Robert Stephenson & Co.
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length56 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 11 in
Service weight124,320 lbs
Adhesive weight85,680 lbs
Total weight204,512 lbs
Axle load28,560 lbs
Water capacity3,002 us gal
Fuel capacity15,680 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,075 hp (802 kW)
Optimal speed35 mph
Starting effort19,652 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area24.6 sq ft
Firebox area129 sq ft
Tube heating area1,316 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,445 sq ft
Total heating area1,445 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2024
Federated Malay States classes O1 to O4
Malayan State Railway classes 561 to 564
Malaysia | 1938 | 68 produced
O<sup>4</sup> No. 564.01 “Kangar”
O4 No. 564.01 “Kangar”
flickr/Historical Railway Images

To accommodate increased mail traffic, the meter-gauge Federated Malay State Railways ordered class O Pacifics from North British at the end of the 1930s. Due to individual batches built between 1938 and 1946, they were given the designations O1 to O4. They were built to achieve the greatest possible power with a permitted axle load of 11 3/4 tons.

These were the most advanced Pacifics in the FMSR. Lightweight construction was used in many places so that the boiler and engine could still be sufficiently dimensioned. The boiler pressure was chosen to be relatively high at 250 psi to increase power. Three cylinders were also used, which were enlarged by half an inch in the third and fourth series. Other special features were thermic syphons and a rotating valve gear.

They were successfully tested for possible high-speed traffic at 70 mph or 113 km/h, but were not actually used. Although these locomotives were later converted to run on oil, they were soon replaced by diesel locomotives in the fast mail service. They therefore continued to be used in freight transport for a long time.

VariantO1, O2O3, O4
General
Built1938-19391940, 1946
ManufacturerNorth British
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase28 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft
Total wheelbase51 ft 7 in
Service weight133,280 lbs
Adhesive weight85,344 lbs
Total weight232,512 lbs
Axle load28,560 lbs
Water capacity4,119 us gal
Fuel capacity2,882 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,700 hp (1,268 kW)
Optimal speed49 mph45 mph
Starting effort22,135 lbf23,942 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure250 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 12 1/2 x 24 inthree, 13 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area27 sq ft
Firebox area385 sq ft
Tube heating area1,109 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,494 sq ft
Superheater area218 sq ft
Total heating area1,712 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 02/2024
Burma Railways class C
Burma | 1896 | 4 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

In 1896, Neilson & Co. delivered two small 4-4-4T tank locomotives to the Burma Railways, which were designated class C. These had a axle load of less than eight tons and were fairly flexible with two two-axle bogies. They were oil-fired, but also had a small coal reserve. Their large firebox in relation to the tube heating surface indicates that they were well suited for commuter traffic with rapid acceleration and many stops.

General
Built1896
ManufacturerNeilson & Co.
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 7 in
Service weight81,872 lbs
Adhesive weight34,608 lbs
Axle load17,808 lbs
Water capacity1,153 us gal
Fuel capacity896 lbs (Kohle) und 1,950 us gal (Öl)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power350 hp (261 kW)
Optimal speed24 mph
Starting effort9,430 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53 in
Boiler pressure150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area12 sq ft
Firebox area105 sq ft
Tube heating area545 sq ft
Evaporative heating area650 sq ft
Total heating area650 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2024
Burma Railways classes N and Ns
Burma | 1911 | 22 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The class N of the Burma Railways designated 17 Mallets built by North British in four batches between 1911 and 1921. With an 0-6-6-0 wheel arrangement, they had all weight available for traction. Nevertheless, they were not only intended for freight service, but also for passenger service.

Their area of operation was the Lashio branch and the Southern Shan states. Even though they had a huge pulling power, they had to be assisted by 2-6-2T locomotives on steeper sections. In 1924 Beardmore built five superheated Ns class locomotives and rebuilt the 17 others in the same form. It didn't take long until they were superseded by the Garratts starting with the GA.I.

VariantNNs
General
Built1911-1915, 19211924
ManufacturerNorth BritishBeardmore
Axle config0-6-6-0 (Erie (Mallet)) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length62 ft 2 1/2 in
Wheelbase24 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 3 in
Total wheelbase48 ft 7 in
Service weight130,368 lbs135,520 lbs
Adhesive weight130,368 lbs135,520 lbs
Total weight200,480 lbs351,344 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity13,440 lbs (coal)24,640 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power800 hp (597 kW)1,000 hp (746 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph23 mph
Starting effort26,766 lbf27,988 lbf
with start valve32,119 lbf33,586 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 15 1/2 x 20 in
and LP: 24 1/4 x 20 in
four, HP: 16 x 20 in
and LP: 24 1/4 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area33 sq ft
Firebox area115 sq ft
Tube heating area1,398 sq ft1,071 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,513 sq ft1,082 sq ft
Superheater area309 sq ft
Total heating area1,513 sq ft1,391 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Mallet
last changed: 05/2024
Staatsspoorwegen class C27
Indonesia | 1916 | 39 produced
Locomotive Magazine, October 1922

In 1916, the Staatsspoorwegen on Java ordered 14 class C27 4-6-4T tank locomotives for suburban and passenger working from the Swiss SLM. Due to problems in obtaining the materials and getting all permits for export which arose due to the war, they were only delivered in 1918. More were built by Werkspoor and Armstrong Whitworth which brought the total to 39.

Thanks to a short rigid wheelbase and bogies which could move sideways by 70 and 80 mm, they could easily operate on curves with a radius of 120 m. To lower the center of gravity, the main water tank was located between the frames and the side tanks had a small height. In 1970, around 30 were still operating.

General
Built1916-1922
ManufacturerSLM, Werkspoor, Armstrong Whitworth
Axle config4-6-4T (Hudson) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length41 ft 11 9/16 in
Wheelbase32 ft 7 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Empty weight109,349 lbs
Service weight139,134 lbs
Adhesive weight73,943 lbs
Axle load24,780 lbs
Water capacity2,378 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power805 hp (600 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Top speed50 mph
Starting effort18,914 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.2 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 11/16 x 21 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area20 sq ft
Firebox area82.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,039.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,122.7 sq ft
Superheater area331.5 sq ft
Total heating area1,454.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2024
Burma Railways GA.I to GA.IV
Myanmar | 1924 | 16 produced
GA.II No. 208, the only one with compound cylinders
GA.II No. 208, the only one with compound cylinders
flickr/Historical Railway Images

On the line from Mandalay to Lashio, Burma Railways not only had curve radii starting at 330 ft (100 m), but also a long gradient of four percent. For this purpose, four class GA.I Garratts were built in 1924 as Double Consolidation, i.e. with the wheel arrangement 2-8-0+0-8-2. At the time they were put into service, they were probably the most powerful meter-gauge locomotives in the world.

Due to the narrow curve radii, the innermost driving axle had a lateral displacement of 3/8 inches (9.5 mm) in both directions. On the four percent steep gradient, the GA.Is were able to reach 9 mph or 14.5 km/h with a 200-ton train.

In 1927, a single compound locomotive was ordered for comparison and was designated GA.II. This also only had two cylinders at each end, with the high-pressure cylinders located behind the cab and the low-pressure cylinders in front of the smoke box. Since the additional complexity apparently didn't pay off, the other locomotives were built with simple expansion.

Standard variant with four equal cylinders
Standard variant with four equal cylinders
flickr/Historical Railway Images

Three GA.IIIs followed in 1927, which were largely similar to the GA.I, but had the smaller superheater of the GA.II. In 1929 Krupp delivered eight GA.IVs, which were similar to the previous locomotives but again had a larger superheater. According to A.E. Durrant, all four classes were retired due to damage during World War II.

VariantGA.IGA.IIGA.IIIGA.IV
General
Built192419271929
ManufacturerBeyer, Peacock & Co.Krupp
Axle config2-8-0+0-8-2T (Double Consolidation (Garratt)) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase59 ft 7 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 4 in
Service weight221,984 lbs231,504 lbs227,584 lbs234,192 lbs
Adhesive weight179,872 lbs189,168 lbs187,712 lbs189,392 lbs
Axle load22,624 lbs23,856 lbs23,520 lbs24,416 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal1,777 us gal2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity11,200 lbs (coal)9,184 lbs (coal)11,200 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,250 hp (932 kW)1,325 hp (988 kW)1,300 hp (969 kW)1,350 hp (1,007 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph17 mph20 mph
Starting effort37,701 lbf49,545 lbf41,890 lbf42,937 lbf
with start valve59,454 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter39 in
Boiler pressure180 psi205 psi200 psi205 psi
Expansion typesimplecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, 15 1/2 x 20 infour, HP: 17 1/2 x 26 in
and LP: 26 1/2 x 26 in
four, 15 1/2 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area43.9 sq ft
Firebox area183.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,551.5 sq ft1,552.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,735 sq ft1,736 sq ft
Superheater area365 sq ft319 sq ft409 sq ft
Total heating area2,100 sq ft2,054 sq ft2,145 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
Garratt
last changed: 04/2024
Federated Malay States class G
Malaysia | 1898 | 34 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

From 1898 onwards, both the Selangor Government Railway and the Perak Government Railway in Malaysia received 13 and eight ten-wheelers respectively, which were built by various British manufacturers and hardly differed from each other. When the Federated Malay States Railways was founded, these became class G and were supplemented by eleven others. Two more came from the Malacca Railway, which only later joined the FMSR.

All but two locomotives were retired before World War II. These two were likely used by the British troops to form an armored train during the war. One of these is also said to have been brought to Siam and Burma by the Japanese.

General
Built1898-1903
ManufacturerKitson & Co., Hunslet, Neilson, Reid & Co., Robert Stephenson & Co.
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight65,520 lbs
Adhesive weight49,056 lbs
Total weight114,576 lbs
Axle load16,352 lbs
Fuel capacitywood
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort10,410 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter51.5 in
Boiler pressure150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 1/2 x 20 in
Boiler
Evaporative heating area736 sq ft
Total heating area736 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 04//2024
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