loco-info.com
The reference for locomotives and railcars
Navigation
Random
Search
Compare
Settings
Mallets (Articulated) with simple expansion[Inhalt]
Baltimore & Ohio class EM-1
United States | 1944 | 30 produced
No. 7614 in the early fifties
No. 7614 in the early fifties
collection Taylor Rush

Although the Baltimore & Ohio wanted to buy diesel locomotives for freight traffic in the forties, they had to order steam locomotives due to the war restrictions. This was the birth of the class EM-1 with the wheel arrangement 2-8-8-4, called “Yellowstone”, being the last articulated of the B&O.

They were thoroughly modern locomotives with roller bearings on all axles including the tender. Thanks to five thermic syphons, arch tubes and a long combustion chamber, the firebox had an enormous surface of 756 square feet, larger than that of the Big Boy. With 117.5 square feet, the grate was smaller than that of the Big Boy that had to burn low-quality coal. Both lead drivers and the lead axle of the trailing bogie had some sideways play.

At the beginning, they operated in the Cumberland area with challenging grades. Services included everything from express freights to heavy coal trains, with occasional passenger trains. For the heaviest trains, they operated in double with another locomotive pushing at the rear. Later they came into the Pittsburgh area and were scrapped between 1957 and 1960.

General
Built1944-1945
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-8-4 (Yellowstone (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase65 ft om
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 9 in
Total wheelbase55 t 70
Service weight628,700 lbs
Adhesive weight485,000 lbs
Total weight1,010,700 lbs
Axle load62,100 lbs
Water capacity22,000 us gal
Fuel capacity50,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power5,900 hp (4,400 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph
Starting effort115,056 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter64 in
Boiler pressure235 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 24 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area117.5 sq ft
Firebox area756 sq ft
Tube heating area4,542 sq ft
Evaporative heating area5,298 sq ft
Superheater area2,118 sq ft
Total heating area7,416 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 05/2024
Chesapeake & Ohio class H-7
United States | 1923 | 45 produced
Former C&O No. 1123 as Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac No. 2
Former C&O No. 1123 as Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac No. 2
collection Taylor Rush

After various Mallets with the wheel arrangement 2-6-6-2, the C&O had the class H-7 built with the wheel arrangement 2-8-8-2. In 1923 and 1924, 25 H-7s were delivered by ALCO and in 1926 20 H-7a by Baldwin followed, which had a slightly higher adhesive weight. Since, unlike their predecessors, they worked with simple expansion, they were called “Simple Simons”.

By 1935 they received a boiler pressure of now 215 instead of 205 psi and thermic syphons. The 632 square foot firebox heating area now included 145 square feet from the combustion chamber and 165 from the thermic syphons. They could haul a 9,500 short tons freight train 113 miles in five hours.

They were replaced on the flatter lines by the class T-1 2-10-4s and on hilly lines by the 2-6-6-6 “Alleghenies”. 30 of the 45 locomotives were later leased to the Union Pacific. The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac also bought some locomotives.

General
Built1923-1926
ManufacturerALCO, Baldwin
Axle config2-8-8-2 (Mikado Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase58 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 9 in
Total wheelbase104 ft 8 1/2 in
Service weight567,500 lbs
Adhesive weight493,070 lbs
Total weight943,840 lbs
Axle load65,200 lbs
Water capacity21,000 us gal
Fuel capacity50,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,850 hp (3,617 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph
Starting effort108,547 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure215 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 23 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area112.2 sq ft
Firebox area632 sq ft
Tube heating area5,948 sq ft
Evaporative heating area6,580 sq ft
Superheater area1,849 sq ft
Total heating area8,429 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 07/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio class H-8 “Allegheny”
United States | 1941 | 60 produced
No. 1633 on a Lima works photo
No. 1633 on a Lima works photo

In order to significantly increase speeds of heavy and fast freight trains, the C&O had the H-8 class developed by Lima. The inspiration came from the class A of the Norfolk & Western with the wheel arrangement 2-6-6-4. A three-axle trailing bogie ensured that an even larger firebox could be installed than on the existing locomotives. It was given relatively large drivers and steam heating so that it could pull passenger trains at 70 mph (113 km/h) if necessary.

The boiler was even larger than on the Big Boy and the locomotives were otherwise designed according to the latest standards. With an output of around 7,500 hp on the drawbar, the locomotives were among the most powerful steam locomotives ever. The installation of a booster in the bogie was rejected because even higher tractive forces were not required. There is some controversy regarding the actual weight of the H-8, as changes during development made it significantly heavier than originally planned. The first driving axle was loaded with 86,700 pounds or 39.3 t, which was the highest axle load of any steam locomotive.

The C&O named the wheel arrangement “Allegheny” after the mountain range that had to be overcome. Here two H-8 hauled up to 11,500 short tons. There they replaced the 2-8-8-2 class H-7 and enabled approximately twice the speed for heavy coal trains. On flatter routes they replaced the 2-10-4 T-1 class and could pull up to 13,500 short tons alone.

The first 45 H-8s were built during World War II, during which time they had to pull both urgent cargo and troop transports. The Virginian had eight AG class locomotives built in 1945, which were based on the H-8. In 1948 the C&O received another 15 H-8s, which were again similar to the AG. As early as 1952, the first H-8s were replaced by diesel locomotives. By 1956 they had all disappeared and today 1601 and 1604 remain preserved in static condition.

Variant1600-16441645-1659
General
Built1941-19441948
ManufacturerLima
Axle config2-6-6-6 (Allegheny (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco76 ft 8 3/8 in
Wheelbase62 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 10 in
Total wheelbase112 ft 11 in
Service weight771,300 lbs751,830 lbs
Adhesive weight507,900 lbs504,010 lbs
Total weight1,199,400 lbs1,183,540 lbs
Axle load86,700 lbs85,480 lbs
Water capacity25,000 us gal
Fuel capacity50,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power8,000 hp (5,966 kW)
Optimal speed46 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort110,211 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter67 in
Boiler pressure260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 22 1/2 x 33 in
Boiler
Grate area135.2 sq ft135 sq ft
Firebox area762 sq ft
Tube heating area6,478 sq ft6,033 sq ft
Evaporative heating area7,240 sq ft6,795 sq ft
Superheater area3,186 sq ft2,922 sq ft
Total heating area10,426 sq ft9,717 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Articulated
last changed: 11/2023
Denver & Rio Grande Western classes L-131 and L-132
United States | 1927 | 20 produced
L-132 No. 3612 on its way to final assembly
L-132 No. 3612 on its way to final assembly
Otto Conrad Perry / Richard Crabtree

In order to achieve greater pulling power, the D&RGW further developed their Mallets from the L-95 and L-107 classes to the L-131 class with single steam expansion. With the wheel arrangement 2-8-8-2 and an axle load of over 70,000 pounds it was possible to build a boiler with one of the largest fireboxes at that time. The class designation indicates a starting tractive effort of 131,000 pounds, although the commonly used formula gives about 140,000 pounds. However, the D&RGW determined the practically achievable pulling force to be 131,800 pounds and then rounded this value down.

In 1927, ten machines were initially built at ALCO-Brooks. Their area of operation was in the area of the continental divide, where there was a steepest gradient of 1.42 percent on the east side and of 3 percent on the west side. The train ratings for one of these locomotives were 3,300 short tons on the less steep side and 1,400 short tons on the steeper side. The drivers apparently complained about excessive smoke production, which became a major problem, especially in tunnels.

L-131 on a factory photo
L-131 on a factory photo
Denver Public Library Special Collections, GB-8096

When ten locomotives of another series were built in 1930, the dimensions of the power plant did not change. To distinguish them, this time the tractive effort was rounded up and it was called L-132. These were now built in Schenectady and received a new boiler design. Much of the tubes were replaced with the larger flues, which contained additional superheater elements. Like the L-131, they remained in service until the mid-1950s, when the conversion to diesel took place.

VariantL-131L-132
General
Built19271930
ManufacturerALCO
Axle config2-8-8-2 (Mikado Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase62 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 9 in
Total wheelbase108 ft
Service weight649,000 lbs665,000 lbs
Adhesive weight559,500 lbs572,000 lbs
Total weight992,000 lbs1,008,500 lbs
Axle load71,000 lbs73,800 lbs
Water capacity18,000 us gal
Fuel capacity60,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power5,900 hp (4,400 kW)6,400 hp (4,772 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph29 mph
Starting effort140,093 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure240 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 26 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area136.5 sq ft
Firebox area715 sq ft683 sq ft
Tube heating area6,550 sq ft7,331 sq ft
Evaporative heating area7,265 sq ft8,014 sq ft
Superheater area2,295 sq ft3,504 sq ft
Total heating area9,560 sq ft11,518 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 03/2023
Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range classes M-3 and M-4
United States | 1941 | 18 produced
M3 No. 221
M3 No. 221
Missabe Railroad Historical Society

For heavy ore trains with up to 115 cars, the Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range needed more powerful locomotives, where the most difficult task was to pull the empty trains up the 2.2 percent steep ramp from the port in Duluth to the marshalling yard in Proctor. The Western Pacific class M-137 was taken as the basis. With a two-axle trailing bogie, the wheel arrangement was 2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone", which allowed for a larger firebox and a larger all-weather cab for the cold Minnesota winters.

In 1941 eight members of the M-3 class were built and in 1943 ten more M-4s. Since the DM&IR had less traffic volume in winter, some of the locomotives were leased out. They were particularly valued by the D&RGW, where they had to pull heavy freight trains over a 10,239 foot high pass over the Continental Divide. With the exception of one locomotive that had an accident, all remained in use until they were replaced by diesel locomotives between 1958 and 1963. Today three remain, all of which are no longer operational.

General
Built1941, 1943
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-8-4 (Yellowstone (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase67 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase17 ft 3 in
Total wheelbase113 ft 6 in
Service weight695,040 lbs
Adhesive weight560,257 lbs
Total weight1,133,040 lbs
Axle load70,033 lbs
Water capacity25,000 us gal
Fuel capacity54,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power6,000 hp (4,474 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Starting effort140,093 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure240 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 26 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area125 sq ft
Firebox area750 sq ft
Tube heating area6,032 sq ft
Evaporative heating area6,782 sq ft
Superheater area2,770 sq ft
Total heating area9,552 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 02/2024
Ferrocarriles Nacionales No. 72
Colombia | 1935 | only one produced
Die Lokomotive, April 1944

When purchasing more powerful locomotives for the Girardot-Tolima-Huila route, an example from Baldwin in the USA was supplied in addition to the British locomotive with the number 57. While the competitor was a Kitson-Meyer locomotive, Baldwin's locomotive belonged to a design developed in the USA.

In the meantime, locomotives with a chassis similar to a mallet had become established there for very heavy trains, but instead of the compound engine, they only had two large cylinders with simple steam expansion on both engine groups. Since these weren't real mallets, the term “articulated” was commonly used instead. Baldwin also carried out the design for Colombia in this design, but as a tank locomotive. In contrast to the competitor engine, this one only had the oil reservoir behind the driver's cab, while the water reservoirs were completely in front of it.

Since the British engine was reordered promptly and was to be given the number 58, Baldwin renumbered the machine to number 72 when it was commissioned. This was soon followed by a further renumbering to 171. After the locomotive had pulled freight and passenger trains for a period that could not be determined, it was destroyed when the boiler explosion. This was probably due to the fact that the water level was too low for the descent on the steep route and the roof of the firebox was no longer covered with water.

General
Built1935
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-8-2T (Mallet) 
Gauge3 ft 0 in (Three feet)
Dimensions and Weights
Fixed wheelbase23 ft 6 in
Service weight288,450 lbs
Adhesive weight249,450 lbs
Axle load32,480 lbs
Water capacity4,000 us gal
Fuel capacity1,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,000 hp (1,491 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph
Starting effort56,745 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter40 in
Boiler pressure210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 17 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area51 sq ft
Firebox area162 sq ft
Tube heating area2,423 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,585 sq ft
Total heating area2,585 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Articulated
last changed: 06/2022
Norfolk & Western class A
United States | 1936 | 43 produced
No. 1205 in September 1947 in Roanoke, Virginia
No. 1205 in September 1947 in Roanoke, Virginia
collection LaMar M. Kelley

The class A consisted of a total of 43 simple articulated locomotives, which were suitable for different types of trains from slow coal trains to passenger trains. The trailing bogie allowed for a very large firebox, generating around 5,400 horsepower even without thermosiphons or water pipes. To reduce friction, roller bearings were installed on all axles, the last five even had roller bearings on the drive and coupling rods

The maximum load for slow freight trains on flatter routes was between 13,000 and 14,500 short tons. Express freight trains could be pulled up to 5,200 short tons and passenger trains could reach speeds of 70 mph and more. Because of the large water usage, old tenders were converted to water-only tenders, adding an additional 20,800 gallons to the 22,000 gallon capacity. With a tender and an additional water car, the locomotives weighed 1,233,000 pounds. Their service life ended between 1958 and 1959.

No. 1206 in 1937 in Columbus, Ohio
No. 1206 in 1937 in Columbus, Ohio
collection Taylor Rush

Today the number 1218 from construction year 1943 still exists, which was restored between 1985 and 1987. It was then the world's strongest pulling operational steam locomotive. With the termination of the Norfolk & Western steam program, however, it was parked again after only four years and is now waiting to be refurbished again.

General
Built1936-1950
ManufacturerRoanoke
Axle config2-6-6-4 (Adriatic Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length121 ft 9 1/4 in
Wheelbase60 ft 4 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase24 ft 8 in
Total wheelbase108 ft 3 1/4 in
Service weight573,000 lbs
Adhesive weight432,350 lbs
Total weight951,600 lbs
Axle load72,000 lbs
Water capacity22,000 us gal
Fuel capacity66,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power6,200 hp (4,623 kW)
Optimal speed31 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort125,897 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter70 in
Boiler pressure300 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 24 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area122 sq ft
Firebox area587 sq ft
Tube heating area6,639 sq ft
Evaporative heating area7,226 sq ft
Superheater area2,703 sq ft
Total heating area9,929 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Articulated
last changed: 02/2023
Northern Pacific classes Z-6 to Z-8
United States | 1936 | 47 produced
Still gleaming fresh from factory is Z-6 No. 5120 in th year 1937 in Duluth, Minnesota
Still gleaming fresh from factory is Z-6 No. 5120 in th year 1937 in Duluth, Minnesota
collection Taylor Rush

The first Challenger locomotives, i.e. the wheel arrangement 4-6-6-4, were built in 1936. In addition to the well-known Challenger of the Union Pacific, this was the Z-6 class of the Great Northern. Since these had to burn lignite, the firebox had to be of enormous size to achieve the required output. The grate alone was 16 feet long, the entire firebox including the combustion chamber was 20 feet 6 inches long, 9 feet 6 inches wide and up to 7 feet 6 inches high. This made a grate area of 152.3 square feet and made the trailing bogie necessary to be able to carry the load.

Z-6 No. 5106 in September 1952 in Spokane, Washington
Z-6 No. 5106 in September 1952 in Spokane, Washington
D. W. Eldridge / collection Taylor Rush

21 examples of the Z-6 were delivered by ALCO in Schenectady in 1936 and 1937. The first four examples still had friction bearings on the axles and were approximately 4,500 pounds or two tons heavier than the rest with Timken roller bearings, the weights of which are given in the table below. With a coupling wheel diameter of 69 inches, they could also pull heavy passenger trains if necessary.

Z-7 No. 5121 waiting for it's clear signal with a long freight train in November 1941 somewhere in Montana
Z-7 No. 5121 waiting for it's clear signal with a long freight train in November 1941 somewhere in Montana
W. R. McGee / collection Taylor Rush

In 1941, six heavier examples followed with slightly different boiler dimensions, one inch larger drivers and a boiler pressure increased by 10 psi, which formed the Z-7 class. Instead of the six-axle tender with a water capacity of 22,000 gallons, seven-axle 25,000-gallon tenders were used. In the years 1943 and 1944, 20 almost identical Z-8 were manufactured, but because of the wartime conditions, many of the high-strength steels had to be replaced with conventional, heavier steels. This added about 1,000 pounds to the mass.

The Z-8s were the last steam locomotives procured by the Northern Pacific. Because they were fired with lignite, they consumed gigantic amounts of fuel. On the 65 mile route from Townsend to Bozeman, Montana with a constant incline, there were reports of coal consumption of 831 pounds per mile. The relatively young locomotives were retired between 1954 and 1959. The Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway procured almost identical locomotives, namely six Z-6 and two Z-8 with oil firing.

VariantZ-6Z-7Z-8
General
Built1936-193719411943-1944
ManufacturerALCO
Axle config4-6-6-4 (Challenger (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase61 ft 10 in62 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase24 ft 4 in24 ft 8 in
Total wheelbase110 ft 0 1/2 in
Service weight626,540 lbs643,000 lbs644,000 lbs
Adhesive weight435,000 lbs444,000 lbs
Total weight1,024,940 lbs1,081,000 lbs1,082,000 lbs
Axle load72,850 lbs74,000 lbs
Water capacity22,000 us gal25,000 us gal
Fuel capacity54,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power6,500 hp (4,847 kW)
Optimal speed40 mph39 mph
Starting effort104,267 lbf106,888 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in70 in
Boiler pressure250 psi260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 23 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area152.3 sq ft
Firebox area839 sq ft756 sq ft
Tube heating area5,019 sq ft4,993 sq ft
Evaporative heating area5,858 sq ft5,749 sq ft
Superheater area2,114 sq ft2,105 sq ft
Total heating area7,972 sq ft7,854 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 10/2022
South African class ME
South Africa | 1912 | only one produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images / PD
General
Built1912
ManufacturerNorth British
Axle config2-6-6-2 (Mallet Mogul) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 7 3/8 in
Wheelbase38 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase58 ft 5 1/2 in
Service weight161,510 lbs
Adhesive weight133,050 lbs
Total weight245,815 lbs
Axle load22,178 lbs
Water capacity3,603 us gal
Fuel capacity13,440 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,050 hp (783 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph
Starting effort35,398 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter42.3 in
Boiler pressure170 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 15 x 23 in
Boiler
Grate area32 sq ft
Firebox area115 sq ft
Tube heating area1,340 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,455 sq ft
Superheater area346 sq ft
Total heating area1,801 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 03 2024
Southern Pacific class AC-9
United States | 1939 | 12 produced
No. 3802 in October 1939 in Kansas City
No. 3802 in October 1939 in Kansas City
Wesley Krambeck / collection Taylor Rush

While most of Southern Pacific's later articulated locomotives were Cab Forwards, the twelve AC-9s were of conventional design. Since there were no tunnels to pass through on the line from Tucumcari, New Mexico to El Paso, Texas, they were able to burn coal in the usual way. Since the coal available was not of high quality, the grate measured 139.5 square feet or just under 13 m².

These Yellowstones were the heaviest locomotives that the Southern Pacific operated. They had a skyline casing on the top of the boiler and were designed for speeds of 75 mph or 121 km/h. After their traditional line was converted to diesel, they were converted to run on oil and moved to other lines. They were retired between 1953 and 1956.

General
Built1939
ManufacturerLima
Axle config2-8-8-4 (Yellowstone (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase66 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 11 in
Total wheelbase113 ft
Service weight689,900 lbs
Adhesive weight531,200 lbs
Total weight1,090,600 lbs
Axle load66,400 lbs
Water capacity22,120 us gal
Fuel capacity56,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power6,000 hp (4,474 kW)
Optimal speed30 mph
Starting effort128,298 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63.5 in
Boiler pressure260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 24 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area139.5 sq ft
Firebox area589 sq ft
Tube heating area6,329 sq ft
Evaporative heating area6,918 sq ft
Superheater area2,831 sq ft
Total heating area9,749 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Articulated
last changed: 02/2024
loading...

We use cookies to save the following settings:

  • selected navigation structure
  • selected language
  • preferred units
  • spelling of railway company names

If you refuse the use of cookies, the settings will only be retained for the current session and will be reset to the default values the next time you visit the site.

Display of units

Here you can set the desired unit system for the technical data.

  • Metric: Lengths in meters, weights in tonnes, and volumes in cubic meters
  • Imperial (UK): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in long tons and volumes in imperial gallons
  • Imperial (US): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in pounds, and volumes in US gallons
  • Individual: Depends on the country of origin of each locomotive
Operator names

Here you can set the display of railway company names.

  • Short: Abbreviation or short form of the name
  • Standard: commonly used name, partially translated to English
  • Complete: full name in local language