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Saxon Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
Leipzig-Dresden Railway “Saxonia”
Germany | 1838 | only one produced
The replica in April 2000 in Dresden-Altstadt
The replica in April 2000 in Dresden-Altstadt
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

The “Saxonia” was the first functioning steam locomotive to be manufactured entirely in Germany. Since no one had any experience in building such a machine, one leaned on the “Comet” delivered from England. Construction began in 1937 in the newly founded engineering institute in Übigau near Dresden under the direction of Johann Andreas Schubert.

The two coupled axles with large wheels were retained, but a trailing axle was also added to improve handling. Although the trailing axle had been removed in 1840, it was reinstalled in 1842 after an accident in France and also retrofitted to the English prototypes, since from this point on the operation of two-axle locomotives was no longer permitted.

As with most early steam locomotives, inside cylinders were used, but also an inner frame. The boiler barrel and firebox were paneled with wood and the latter protruded far beyond the barrel and had a dome-shaped ceiling. The steam dome was also very tall and had a hemispherical ceiling.

Although this locomotive was intended for the inaugural run of the Leipzig-Dresden railway on April 7, 1839, it is reported that there were protests or sabotage on the part of the English locomotive builders, which is why the opening train was pulled by two English locomotives and the “Saxonia” only ran behind. Nevertheless, the locomotive continued to be in service, the end of which is not exactly documented. The locomotive was probably used until the 1850s.

In 1985, the GDR decided to create a replica of the engine that was true to the original for the 150th anniversary of the line between Leipzig and Dresden. One had to turn to the few surviving blueprints or contemporary literature, but tried to replicate the model as well as possible. However, since some of the original manufacturing methods were no longer familiar or modern safety regulations had to be observed, the original design was deviated from in many places. So the frame of the tender was clad in wood, as the original construction method could no longer be reproduced exactly.

After the jubilee run, the engine was kept operational and demonstrated its capabilities at speeds of up to 70 km/h. Today it is owned by the DB Museum Nuremberg, but is on display in the Dresden Transport Museum. It is no longer operational as the boiler expired in 2011 and has not been repaired since then.

General
Built1838
ManufacturerÜbigau
Axle config0-4-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length28 ft 7 11/16 in
Wheelbase10 ft 0 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 0 in
Service weight22,046 lbs
Adhesive weight17,637 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power54 hp (40 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort1,791 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter55.7 in
Boiler pressure61 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 x 16 in
Boiler
Grate area6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area307.8 sq ft
Total heating area307.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
prototype
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Leipzig-Dresden Railway 2-2-2 express locomotive
Saxon VIa
Germany | 1848 | 43 produced
Preserved No. 2 “Zürich” around 1920
Preserved No. 2 “Zürich” around 1920
Foto: Transpress

The Royal Saxon State Railways grouped all uncoupled locomotives under the designation VIa, i.e. the types that only had one driven axle. As a rule, these were express locomotives with an 2-2-2 wheel arrangement, which is discussed in more detail here.

The majority of these were 40 engines which were procured between 1848 and 1868 in some significantly different versions for the Leipzig-Dresden railway. Another three were built in 1861 and 1862 for the Eastern State Railway in Saxony. Since the locomotives were manufactured by Borsig and Hartmann, they were distinguished by the designations B VIa and H VIa. The Borsig machines were preceded by two from 1849, which only had a wheel diameter of 1,524 mm and a cylinder diameter of 330 mm.

Distinguishing features were the firebox with a rectangular cross-section and the inside frame, because most locomotives at that time had outside frames. The appearance of the wheels earned them the nickname “spinning wheels”. A special feature that other early locomotives also had was a Kirchweger type exhaust steam condenser. The exhaust steam from the steam chests was fed through a pipe into the tender and directly into the water to heat it. However, this technology disappeared again a short time later, as the injectors that were soon introduced only worked with cold water and the steam introduced substances into the water that attacked the metal.

Some of the first examples were retired as early as 1868, when production of the last had just ended. Between 1873 and 1876, four were converted to the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement, with some retaining the tender and the others becoming tank locomotives. Despite their outdated design, the locomotives were able to last so long that in 1890 21 of the 43 engines were still in use. The last two were withdrawn in 1900 and 1902.

VariantB IVaH IVa
General
Built1848-18651856-1857, 1868
ManufacturerBorsigHartmann
Axle config2-2-2 (Jenny Lind) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase13 ft 4 5/8 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 4 5/8 in
Service weight61,729 lbs
Adhesive weight26,015 lbs
Axle load26,015 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power134 hp (100 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Starting effort5,776 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure109 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area9.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area937.5 sq ft
Total heating area937.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Leipzig-Dresden Railway “Borsdorf” to “Zittau”
Saxon
Germany | 1865 | 20 produced
“Frauenstein” on a factory photo of Maschinenfabrik Esslingen
“Frauenstein” on a factory photo of Maschinenfabrik Esslingen

In the later type II, the Royal Saxon State Railways grouped together various locomotives with a 2-4-0 wheel arrangement that had been built between 1854 and 1875 for various railway administrations. The clients were the Leipzig-Dresdner Eisenbahn-Compagnie, the Altenburg-Zeitzer Eisenbahngesellschaft and the Saxon-Thuringian Railway. The state railways also had such machines built and placed them in the same category. The 20 machines of the LDE with the names “Borsdorf” to “Zittau” are to be discussed here as representative of these types. As usual with the LDE, these locomotives built between 1866 and 1868 were not given numbers, only names.

An externally visible feature of the first generation of locomotives was the firebox with a large, four-sided cupola that protruded far beyond the boiler barrel. The Stephenson type valve gear was within the frame. In addition, an exhaust steam condenser was used to reduce water consumption, as was found on many locomotives at the time. However, it did not prevail due to the serious long-term effects of deposits.

The 20 examples were taken over by the state railway in 1876 and given the operating numbers 584 to 603 in addition to the existing names. Initially they received the type designation K III, which indicated the manufacturer Kessler. Later they were renamed K II and then only II, while they were given new numbers several times. The first ones were taken out of service as early as 1893, but the last examples only disappeared 20 years later.

General
Built1865-1868
ManufacturerEsslingen
Axle config2-4-0 (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Empty weight66,139 lbs
Service weight74,957 lbs
Adhesive weight55,116 lbs
Axle load27,558 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power235 hp (175 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Starting effort9,451 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure109 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area13 sq ft
Firebox area77.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,063.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,141 sq ft
Total heating area1,141 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Altenburg-Zeitz No. 1 to 5
Saxon II
Germany | 1872 | 5 produced
Former number 5 “Rositz” with new number 749 of the Saxon State Railways
Former number 5 “Rositz” with new number 749 of the Saxon State Railways

The Altenburg-Zeitz railway company was founded in 1870 in the Duchy of Saxony-Altenburg to transport lignite from the Meuselwitz-Rositz mining area. In addition to transporting the lignite, passenger transport and other freight transport also had to be handled. For this reason, locomotives had to be procured that could handle both freight and passenger transport for the small company.

The five locomotives purchased by Borsig for this purpose had 1,525 mm coupling wheels and a leading axle mounted fixed in the frame. Other features included inside valve gear and a rudimentary cab. Between 1880 and 1888, five more tank and tender locomotives were procured. When the Altenburg-Zeitz railway company was nationalized in 1896, all machines were taken over. The numbers 1 to 5 were classified in the Saxon type II and provided with the numbers 745 to 749. The last three units survived until 1922 and were not given new numbers by the Reichsbahn.

General
Built1872, 1875
ManufacturerBorsig
Axle config2-4-0 (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length46 ft 7 1/4 in
Wheelbase10 ft 9 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 9 1/2 in
Empty weight65,036 lbs
Service weight73,855 lbs
Adhesive weight53,793 lbs
Axle load26,896 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power369 hp (275 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph
Starting effort11,133 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure123 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area16.1 sq ft
Firebox area78.6 sq ft
Tube heating area1,127 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,205.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,205.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 01/2022
Albert Railway “Elbe” to “Burgk”
Saxon H VIIIb T
Germany | 1856 | 5 produced
Die Lokomotive, September 1912

In 1856, the Albertsbahn AG built an approximately 13 km long line on the Windberg south of Dresden in order to be able to transport the coal mined there to the main line near Freital. This route is still known today as the "Saxon Semmering Railway" and has gradients of up to 2.5 percent and radii of up to 85 meters. The first locomotives ordered were not suitable for this route, so three new ones were initially ordered from Hartmann in Chemnitz. These were delivered in 1857 and given the names “Elbe”, “Windberg” and “Steiger”. In 1858 another engine called “Freiberg” was built and only in 1866 the fifth, called “Burgk”.

In addition to two coupled wheelsets, these had a bogie with two leading axles and were therefore able to prove themselves on the Windbergbahn. In terms of power, they were also sufficient to transport the empty wagons up the mountain and bring the full wagons safely down the hill.

Due to their size, the wagons could be described as coal trucks and not as full-fledged freight wagons and each had a capacity of five tonnes. The trains usually consisted of ten of these trucks, which meant that the payload was about twice the weight of the locomotive.

The “Elbe” 1867 with personnel and coal trucks
The “Elbe” 1867 with personnel and coal trucks
archive Haus der Heimat Freital

With the nationalization in 1868, all five locomotives came to the Saxon State Railways and received the type designation H VIIIb T. To increase the power, they were equipped with a new boiler in 1877. This had an operating pressure of 8.5 instead of 6.32 bars. They were replaced by the VII T between 1885 and 1893. The new locomotives had roughly the same service weight as the modernized models, but since their entire weight was only supported by the two coupled axles, they were able to generate more tractive effort.

Variantas builtrebuilt 1877
General
Built1856-1866
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config4-4-0T (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Empty weight40,785 lbs46,297 lbs
Service weight47,179 lbs58,863 lbs
Adhesive weight35,825 lbs41,888 lbs
Axle load19,511 lbs22,046 lbs
Water capacity497 us gal
Fuel capacity1,102 lbs (coal)coal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power107 hp (80 kW)134 hp (100 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Starting effort6,006 lbf8,076 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter38 in
Boiler pressure92 psi123 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 12 3/4 x 18 in
Boiler
Grate area7.2 sq ft
Firebox area41.8 sq ft
Tube heating area428.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area470.2 sq ft
Total heating area470.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Saxon I F
Germany | 1917 | only one produced
I F of the sleeper impregnation plant in Wülknitz
I F of the sleeper impregnation plant in Wülknitz
Die Lokomotive, June 1939

Fireless steam locomotives, are used to this day primarily in industrial plants where there is an increased risk of fire and/or where larger amounts of steam are produced during operations. Although most of the operators of these machines were private companies, the Saxon State Railways also needed a shunting locomotive for their sleeper impregnation plant in Wülknitz, where both of these conditions were met. One of these machines was ordered from the Sächsische Maschinenfabrik in Chemnitz in 1917 and classified as type I F. In the previous three years, four identical locomotives had already been manufactured there for various industrial companies.

The principle of fireless locomotives is that hot steam is introduced into the boiler, which heats up the water already in it and gradually causes it to evaporate as well. With increasing operating time, the pressure in the boiler decreases, which also lowers the boiling point of the water, so that new steam can continue to be generated even after several hours of operation. Otherwise, the design of the running gear and engine is the same as that of a conventional steam locomotive. However, since the weight of the firebox was eliminated, the cylinders were usually placed at the rear under the cab for better balance.

The locomotive for the sleeper impregnation plant was put into service in 1917 and given the number 1 because it was the only locomotive of this type on the state railway. It remained in action in this plant all of its life, which was later referred to as the Wülknitz track structure plant. They were phased out around 1970, although large series of new steam storage locomotives were still being produced in the GDR even in the 1980s.

General
Built1917
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-4-0T (Four-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Empty weight35,274 lbs
Service weight46,297 lbs
Adhesive weight46,297 lbs
Axle load23,149 lbs
Power
Power sourcefireless steam
Top speed19 mph
Power Plant
Driver diameter33.9 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 15 3/4 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
industry
fireless locomotive
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Saxon I K
German Reichsbahn class 9975
Germany | 1881 | 39 produced
No. 54, the engine from 2009, in June 2010 in Naundorf
No. 54, the engine from 2009, in June 2010 in Naundorf
Wassen

As the I K, the Royal Saxon State Railways ran a type of very light and compact, six-coupled tank locomotive for 750 mm gauge. They were developed in order to obtain a cheap locomotive for the many narrow-gauge lines opened in Saxony from 1881.

In accordance with the intended use, the engines were simply constructed. In most engines, all three axles were fixed inside the frame, but the small wheel diameter of only 760 mm also allowed a short overall axle base, which is why sufficient running properties were achieved on the winding routes with tight radii. Only four of the 39 locomotives had a Klien-Lindner hollow axle installed at the front, but this was not used on the latest engines. Due to the short wheelbase, the boiler protruded beyond the outermost axle at the front and rear. The chimney had a clearly visible spark arrestor, since the area of operation of these narrow-gauge railways naturally often led through forests. The rope and the guide rollers of the hoist line brake, which was used to brake the train, were also visible.

Despite the very modest performance, 27 examples were taken over by the Reichsbahn after five had been handed over to Poland as reparations. They were given the numbers 99 7501 to 99 7527, but were retired before the late 1920s. Two of the Polish locomotives had returned to Germany during the Second World War, but were returned immediately after the war due to the availability of more powerful standard locomotives.

As a conversion from the I K, two Fairlie locomotives were created, which were created by coupling two locomotives each to the rear. This was done by removing the rear wall of the driver's cabs and thus connecting them to one driver's cab. These locomotives did not prove themselves, however, as the fireman had great problems loading the two boilers in the very narrow space. Two similar engines had already been manufactured by Hawthorn in England and these were also designated II K. These are also presented in a separate article.

Also worth mentioning is the replica of an I K as a museum locomotive, which was built in 2006, i.e. 125 years after the opening of the Saxon narrow-gauge network. This happened with the help of various sponsors and the support of companies, so that the engine could be completed in June 2009 in the Meiningen steam locomotive works and the total costs were significantly lower than originally estimated. Since then it has been in service with the Preßnitztalbahn.

General
Built1881-1892
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-6-0T (Six-coupled) 
Gauge2 ft 5 1/2 in
Dimensions and Weights
Length17 ft 3 7/8 in
Wheelbase5 ft 10 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 10 7/8 in
Empty weight26,235 lbs
Service weight33,731 lbs
Adhesive weight33,731 lbs
Axle load11,244 lbs
Water capacity396 us gal
Fuel capacity1,102 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power118 hp (88 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed19 mph
Starting effort6,603 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter29.9 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 9 7/16 x 14 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area7.1 sq ft
Firebox area33.4 sq ft
Tube heating area286.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area319.7 sq ft
Total heating area319.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
narrow gauge
tank locomotive
military railway
last changed: 01/2022
Saxon I M
German Reichsbahn class 9916
Germany | 1902
Hartmann works photo
Hartmann works photo
General
Built1902
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Double Fairlie) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length34 ft 5 in
Wheelbase24 ft 11 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase3 ft 7 5/16 in
Empty weight72,973 lbs
Service weight92,153 lbs
Adhesive weight92,153 lbs
Axle load23,149 lbs
Water capacity845 us gal
Fuel capacity2,646 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power326 hp (243 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed19 mph
Starting effort14,929 lbf
with start valve17,915 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter29.5 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 11 x 14 15/16 in
and LP: 16 15/16 x 14 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area19.4 sq ft
Firebox area84 sq ft
Tube heating area767.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area851.4 sq ft
Total heating area851.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
tank locomotive
narrow gauge
Fairlie
double Fairlie
last changed: 08 2023
Saxon I TV
German Reichsbahn class 980
Germany | 1910 | 18 produced
Die Lokomotive, April 1913

With the Windberg railway, the Saxon State Railways operated a branch line near Dresden that combined a gradient of 2.5 percent with curve radii from 85 meters. Since the two-axle locomotives around the turn of the century were no longer powerful enough for the rapidly growing excursion traffic and the increasing quantities of coal transport, a more powerful tank locomotive was procured especially for this route.

Based on the IV K narrow-gauge locomotive, a larger Meyer-type locomotive with two bogies and a compound engine was developed. As in the prototype, there were two low and two high-pressure cylinders in the middle of the locomotive, which drove the front and rear wheel sets. To reduce rolling movements, the bogies were coupled to each other.

98 001 in August 1983 in Freital-Hainsberg
98 001 in August 1983 in Freital-Hainsberg
Wassen

Between 1910 and 1914, 18 examples were delivered, which were nicknamed “Windberglok” and “Kreuzspinne” (cross spider). Another locomotive was delivered to the Oberhohndorf-Reinsdorf coal railway and came to her sisters in 1940, when they were already owned by the Reichsbahn.

In 1925 the latter still took over 15 and gave them the numbers 98 001 to 98 015. The classification as class 98 marked them as local railway locomotives, although they were larger and heavier than most of this type. This can be explained by the fact that the development was carried out specifically for a single branch line and the focus was on suitability for small curve radii.

After the Second World War, most of the locomotives remained in service with the new Reichsbahn and were also used to transport uranium ore. Their life ended in 1967 when a diesel locomotive, the V 60, was ready that was also suitable for the tight curves. Today only road number 98 001 is preserved and exhibited in a museum.

Variantfirst batchthird batch
General
Built1910-1914
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-4-4-0T (Double Fairlie) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length38 ft 1 5/8 in
Wheelbase25 ft 3 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 1 1/2 in
Empty weight105,381 lbs111,113 lbs
Service weight130,073 lbs136,686 lbs
Adhesive weight130,073 lbs136,686 lbs
Axle load33,951 lbs
Water capacity1,321 us gal
Fuel capacity4,850 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power532 hp (397 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort23,008 lbf
with start valve27,610 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.6 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 14 3/16 x 24 13/16 in
and LP: 22 7/16 x 24 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area17.2 sq ft
Firebox area73.2 sq ft
Tube heating area995.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,068.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,068.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
tank locomotive
Meyer
secondary line
last changed: 01/2022
Saxon I V
German Reichsbahn class 5560
Germany | 1898 | 30 produced
No. 1251
No. 1251
Die Lokomotive, April 1913
General
Built1898-1903
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-4-4-0 (Four Coupled Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 11 11/16 in
Wheelbase18 ft 10 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 6 15/16 in
Service weight132,277 lbs
Adhesive weight132,277 lbs
Axle load33,290 lbs
Water capacity3,170 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power738 hp (550 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph
Top speed28 mph
Starting effort27,169 lbf
with start valve32,603 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 25 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area22.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,518.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,518.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Mallet
secondary line
last changed: 08 2023
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