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Imperial Russian Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
Rostov-Vladikavkaz Railway series А
Russia | 1892 | 533 produced
Die Lokomotive, October 1918

The Vladikavkaz Railway was convinced that an express locomotive needed a leading bogie. Thus, instead of the 2-6-0 wheel arrangement, the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement was chosen and the series A was designed with it. These were two-cylinder compound machines, of which six were manufactured in Kolomna in 1892. The production machines were slightly heavier with a larger low-pressure cylinder. Their production started in 1894 also at German manufacturers. Some of the locomotives were later oil-fired.

Variantcoaloil
General
Built1892, 1894-1907
ManufacturerKolomna, Hanomag, Henschel, Sormow, Luhansk, Charkiw
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco34 ft 2 7/8 in
Wheelbase26 ft 4 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 1 11/16 in
Total wheelbase45 ft 7 3/8 in
Empty weight121,629 lbs127,427 lbs
Service weight134,438 lbs140,148 lbs
Adhesive weight87,744 lbs96,474 lbs
Total weight213,077 lbs218,786 lbs
Axle load29,630 lbs32,276 lbs
Water capacity5,125 us gal3,963 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal1,136 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power771 hp (575 kW)838 hp (625 kW)
Optimal speed35 mph39 mph
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort13,856 lbf
with start valve16,627 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylinderstwo, HP: 19 11/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 28 3/4 x 25 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area23.3 sq ft
Firebox area117.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,523 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,640.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,640.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 03/2023
Imperial Russian Railways series О
Russia | 1890 | 9,129 produced
Version by Sigl, built for the Ryazan-Uralsk Railway
Version by Sigl, built for the Ryazan-Uralsk Railway
Die Lokomotive, June 1919

The railway administrations of the Tsarist Empire combined eight-coupled freight locomotives under the letter О, which made it to a number of more than 9,000 in different versions. The series went back to a type from Maschinenfabrik Esslingen, which had been supplied to several railway administrations from 1878 onwards. In order to follow the trend of the time, the Vladikavkaz railway had two-cylinder compound locomotives based on this type manufactured in Kolomna in 1890, which marked the beginning of the О series.

O<sub>в</sub> No. 324 in August 2015 at the Podmoskovnaya depot in Moscow
Oв No. 324 in August 2015 at the Podmoskovnaya depot in Moscow
Andreykor

From 1893 a unified standard type was manufactured, which had a wheel diameter of only 1,150 mm and cylinders with a diameter of initially 500 and 710 mm with a stroke of 650 mm. After 129 examples were produced, the diameter of the low-pressure cylinder was increased to 730 mm. A total of 1,373 examples of the standard type from 1893 were manufactured by 1899, which were also supplied from Germany and Austria due to the limited capacities of the Russian factories.

Armoured locomotive O<sub>?</sub> No. 5067 in the Central Museum of the Russian Armed Forces
Armoured locomotive O? No. 5067 in the Central Museum of the Russian Armed Forces
Valery Ded

In 1897 a new standard type appeared, of which a total of 3,172 were built by eight Russian factories by 1903. This variant, designated Од, now had a driver diameter of 1,200 mm and a boiler pressure increased from 11 to 11.5 bar.

After two prototypes were completed in 1899 with a Heusinger type valve gear instead of the problematic Joy valve gear, a total of 4,178 examples were built between 1901 and 1907, which also had a Heusinger valve gear. The diameter of the cylinders had been increased to 510 and 740 mm. The two types were designated Ов and Оk and were alternatively known as the 1901 standard type and the 1904 standard type. Between 1908 and 1915 another 190 examples of the Ов were made.

When superheated steam became established in locomotive construction, a few locomotives with superheaters and simple expansion were built between 1908 and 1915. These were given the designation Оп and soon other examples of the earlier series were rebuilt in the same way. After the October Revolution, another 72 pieces were made between 1925 and 1928. Later, some locomotives received boilers with a pressure of 14 bar during conversions. After the introduction of more powerful freight locomotives from the 1930s, they were increasingly used for shunting. The last operations on the route took place in 1964 on a branch line of the Trans-Baikal.

VariantОдОпОп Umbau
General
Built1890-19031890-1915, 1925-19281933-1935
ManufacturerKolomna, Brjansk, Votkinsk, Lugansk, Newski, Kirowwerk, Sormowo, Malyschew-Werk, Sigl, Henschel, BMAG
Axle config0-8-0 (Eight-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 6 1/2 in61 ft 3 7/8 in
Length loco30 ft 4 15/16 in31 ft 8 13/16 in
Wheelbase12 ft 9 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 9 1/8 in
Empty weight99,869 lbs103,617 lbs101,413 lbs
Service weight112,436 lbs119,049 lbs115,522 lbs
Adhesive weight112,436 lbs119,049 lbs115,522 lbs
Axle load28,109 lbs29,762 lbs28,881 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power671 hp (500 kW)838 hp (625 kW)1,039 hp (775 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph15 mph18 mph
Top speed31 mph34 mph
Starting effort20,212 lbf36,011 lbf36,236 lbf
with start valve24,254 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter45.3 in47.2 in
Boiler pressure160 psi167 psi203 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 19 11/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 28 3/4 x 25 9/16 in
two, 21 5/8 x 25 9/16 intwo, 19 11/16 x 25 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area19.9 sq ft
Firebox area115.2 sq ft
Tube heating area1,687.8 sq ft1,264.8 sq ft1,250.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,803 sq ft1,379.9 sq ft1,365.9 sq ft
Superheater area289.5 sq ft442.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,803 sq ft1,669.5 sq ft1,808.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 06/2022
Imperial Russian Railways series Р
Russia | 1899 | 477 produced
archive CMZhT

In order to speed up freight trains, the series Р (R) was developed with a 2-8-0 wheel arrangement to replace the existing 0-8-0 locomotives. The special feature was the tandem compound engine, in which the high and low pressure cylinders were located one behind the other on both sides. This saved the need for a cranked axle, but the special arrangement of the cylinders meant that there was a lot of maintenance work. Since the speed was soon no longer sufficient on flat land lines and more powerful locomotives were available on mountain lines, the locomotives were only used on industrial railways from around 1940.

General
Built1899-1903, 1905-1911
ManufacturerBrjansk, Putilow, Grafenstaden, Sormowo, Kolomna
Axle config2-8-0 (Consolidation) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco34 ft 3 7/16 in
Empty weight122,356 lbs
Service weight134,482 lbs
Adhesive weight119,049 lbs
Axle load29,211 lbs
Water capacity3,963 us gal
Fuel capacity11,023 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power872 hp (650 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort24,774 lbf
with start valve29,729 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48.4 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 15 3/4 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 23 5/8 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area27.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,674.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,674.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
tandem compound
last changed: 03/2023
Imperial Russian Railways series І
originally series BK
Russia | 1903 | 112 produced
works photo Kolomna

Shortly after the turn of the century, the Central Siberian Railway required powerful passenger locomotives for its winding mountain routes with light rails. In order to ensure sufficient mobility and to comply with the axle loads, the BK was created in the Mallet design with a 2-4-4-0 wheel arrangement. Kolomna initially made five locomotives with compound engines and four with four equal-sized cylinders, which had a slightly larger boiler with a lower pressure.

103 more followed until 1909, all of which had compound engines. They were soon renamed to І by the Russian State Railways. They did not reach a larger number because they had a higher consumption and more complex maintenance than locomotives with a one-piece frame. Nevertheless, they remained in use for a long time, so that the last machine was not retired until 1954.

Variantcompoundsimple
General
Built1903-1909
ManufacturerKolomna
Axle config2-4-4-0 (Vivarais (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length61 ft 3 15/16 in
Length loco34 ft 7 1/8 in
Wheelbase27 ft 6 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase5 ft 6 15/16 in
Total wheelbase52 ft 0 5/16 in
Empty weight131,506 lbs
Service weight145,064 lbs
Adhesive weight142,859 lbs
Total weight249,122 lbs
Axle load30,203 lbs
Water capacity5,283 us gal
Fuel capacity13,228 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power738 hp (550 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph14 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort25,357 lbf32,948 lbf
with start valve30,428 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.2 in
Boiler pressure174 psi160 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, HP: 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
and LP: 25 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
four, 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area28.1 sq ft29.7 sq ft
Firebox area124.9 sq ft139.9 sq ft
Tube heating area1,767.4 sq ft1,866.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,892.3 sq ft2,006.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,892.3 sq ft2,006.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
Mallet
last changed: 09/2023
Imperial Russian Railways series Щ
Russia | 1906 | 1,910 produced
Щ No. 2067 in the Podmoskovnaya depot in Moscow
Щ No. 2067 in the Podmoskovnaya depot in Moscow
thebombokitten
Variantsaturated compoundsuperheated compoundsuperheated simple
General
Built1906-1918
ManufacturerCharkow, Brjansk, Lugansk, Newski, Putilow, Sormowo, Kolomna
Axle config2-8-0 (Consolidation) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length67 ft 10 5/8 in
Length loco38 ft 4 5/8 in
Wheelbase25 ft 7 1/16 in
Total wheelbase58 ft 1 15/16 in
Empty weight152,119 lbs156,969 lbs
Service weight170,417 lbs172,622 lbs
Adhesive weight141,537 lbs142,639 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs35,715 lbs
Water capacity3,680 us gal5,099 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power939 hp (700 kW)1,140 hp (850 kW)1,100 hp (820 kW)
Optimal speed23 mph28 mph16 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort25,946 lbf42,968 lbf
with start valve31,135 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter51.2 in
Boiler pressure203 psi174 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 20 1/16 x 27 9/16 in
and LP: 30 1/8 x 27 9/16 in
two, 23 1/4 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area30.1 sq ft
Firebox area163.6 sq ft162.5 sq ft
Tube heating area2,054.8 sq ft1,902 sq ft1,818 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,218.4 sq ft2,064.5 sq ft1,980.6 sq ft
Superheater area440.2 sq ft635.1 sq ft
Total heating area2,218.4 sq ft2,504.8 sq ft2,615.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 10 2023
Imperial Russian Railways series Б
Russia | 1907 | 252 produced
Б-101 with its original Number А<sub>Б</sub>-126
Б-101 with its original Number АБ-126

The Russian railways used the letter Б (B) to group express locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement, i.e. in Russian notation 2-3-0. Between 1896 and 1903, locomotives with four-cylinder compound engines were manufactured for several railway administrations. The driver's cab was closed off to the rear by the tender. They had cylinder diameters of 370 and 580 mm with a stroke of 650 mm and a coupling wheel diameter of 1,730 mm. In Russian conditions, especially in the harsh winters, maintenance of the four-cylinder engine proved too complicated. They also proved to be too fuel-intensive on long, straight stretches. As a result, many locomotives were converted to simple engines from around 1910 and fitted with superheaters. The new cylinders had a relatively long stroke of 700 mm with a diameter of only 550 mm.

In 1907, the Moscow-Kyiv-Voronesh Railway ordered three locomotives from the Bryansk works, which already equaled the two-cylinder superheated version ex works. From 1909 other railways ordered more examples of this design, so that the number increased to 252, of which 99 were built in Luhansk. The locomotives reached up to 125 km/h in test drives and were certified for 105 km/h. This was later increased to 115 km/h. With the introduction of more modern locomotives, the Б series locomotives were later moved to the eastern, more sparsely populated areas and finally retired in the 1950s.

Variantcompoundsimple
General
Built1907, 1909-1914
ManufacturerBrjansk, Lugansk
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco37 ft 8 11/16 in
Service weight164,134 lbs
Adhesive weight101,192 lbs
Axle load34,568 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,282 hp (956 kW)
Optimal speed95 mph28 mph
Top speed71 mph
Starting effort8,583 lbf28,738 lbf
with start valve10,300 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylinderstwo, HP: 14 9/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 22 13/16 x 25 9/16 in
two, 21 5/8 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area28 sq ft19.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,980.6 sq ft1,773.9 sq ft
Superheater area441.3 sq ft
Total heating area2,421.9 sq ft2,215.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 06/2022
Imperial Russian Railways series С
Russia | 1910 | 678 produced
С.68
С.68
Vitaly V. Kuzmin
General
Built1910-1919
ManufacturerSormowo, Newski, Charkow, Lugansk
Axle config2-6-2 (Prairie) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length69 ft 9 1/4 in
Wheelbase29 ft 2 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 9 3/8 in
Total wheelbase60 ft 7 7/8 in
Service weight167,110 lbs
Adhesive weight104,786 lbs
Total weight304,017 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs
Water capacity6,076 us gal
Fuel capacity37,479 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,475 hp (1,100 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph
Top speed71 mph
Starting effort28,738 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 21 5/8 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area40.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,230.3 sq ft
Superheater area565.1 sq ft
Total heating area2,795.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 08 2023
Imperial Russian Railways series Э
Finnish Railway series Tr2
Russia | 1912 | 10,632 produced
Э<sup>г</sup>, of which 700 were built in Germany
Эг, of which 700 were built in Germany
Die Lokomotive, February 1940

The letter Э (E) designated a family of tender locomotives with a 0-10-0 wheel arrangement on the Russian and Soviet railways. With a number of more than 10,000 and a production period of 45 years, it is the most-built steam locomotive of all time. Not only factories in Russia and the Soviet Union were involved, but also factories in other European countries.

The design came from Wacław Łopuszyński from the Vladikavkaz Railway. Here, for the first time, five coupled axles were necessary because the axle loads were limited and a sufficiently strong freight locomotive was required for the increasing train weights. The Gölsdorf system was used here, in which some of the axles could be moved sideways. Other requirements included a Belpaire firebox and a Schmidt-type superheater

The first 15 locomotives were delivered from Lugansk in 1912 only to the Vladikavkaz railway. Other railway administrations soon followed and from 1915 production was also handed over to other works. The cylinder diameter increased from initially 600 to 630 to 650 mm. A total of 1,528 of the basic variant had been manufactured by 1925.

Since industrial capacity had declined significantly after the October Revolution and a large number of freight locomotives were needed for the reconstruction, manufacturers were now sought in the West. They first turned to NoHAB in Sweden, where 1,000 copies of the Эш were to be manufactured. The letter ш (Sch) stood for “Sweden”. The first 18 locomotives were delivered by rail in a cumbersome and time-consuming process, since the track gauges differed from country to country. The rest was then transported by ship.

Although many subcontractors were involved in the production, the ordered 1,000 locomotives could not be delivered. Now a large number of German manufacturers were also taken on board, so that ultimately between 1921 and 1924 500 were manufactured in Sweden and 700 in Germany. The German locomotives were designated Эг, with the г (G) standing for “Germany”.

Production capacities were soon available again in the Soviet Union, but the industry was not yet ready for a complete redesign. Thus the ЭУ (EU) was developed, which achieved an additional performance of 15 percent thanks to a newly developed superheater. 2,535 of these were made between 1926 and 1931.

This was followed by the ЭМ (EM), which was primarily adapted to the increased transport volumes with a higher boiler pressure. Since weight had been saved in some places by welding and the omission of the feed dome, the axle loads were distributed unevenly. Nevertheless, a total of 2,325 of this variant were made between 1931 and 1935.

The problems with the ЭМ were solved with the ЭР, which had a longer firebox and again a feed dome. In addition, it achieved an increase in output of ten to 15 percent with an eight percent increase in efficiency. During World War II some came to Finland where they were used as Tr2. Since the Soviet industry was no longer able to produce sufficient quantities of freight locomotives itself after the end of the war and no new design was possible, further ЭР were built in their own country and also in other countries of the Warsaw pact. When production ended in 1957, a total of 3,044 ЭР had been built.

Due to its large number, the Э was distributed throughout the country. It was not only used in front of freight trains, but also in front of passenger trains. Over the years it has been used for various trials, such as thermic syphons, improvements to the firebox or pulverized coal firing. Although production continued into the 1950s, many of the older variants were already being moved to shunting service or handed over to industry during this period. In the sixties the decommissioning started in larger numbers.

VariantЭЭМЭР
General
Built1912-19251931-19351934-1936, 1943-1957
ManufacturerLugansk, Sormovsky, Charkiw, Kolomna, Brjansk, Newski, Reșița, Malaxa, MÁVAG, Škoda, ČKD, ZISPO, Cegielski, Esslingen, AEG, BMAG, Borsig, Hanomag, Henschel, Hohenzollern, Humboldt, Jung, MGK, Krauss, Krupp, Linke-Hofmann, Orenstein & Koppel, Vulcan, Wolf, Maffei, NoHAB
Axle config0-10-0 (Ten-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length71 ft 11 7/8 in
Length loco37 ft 7 in37 ft 10 1/2 in39 ft 5 9/16 in
Empty weight158,953 lbs165,170 lbs
Service weight179,015 lbs182,807 lbs189,156 lbs
Adhesive weight179,015 lbs182,807 lbs189,156 lbs
Axle load35,935 lbs39,419 lbs38,140 lbs
Water capacity6,076 us gal6,208 us gal7,133 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,647 hp (1,228 kW)
Estimated power1,207 hp (900 kW)1,408 hp (1,050 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph15 mph18 mph
Top speed34 mph40 mph
Starting effort43,764 lbf59,955 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52 in
Boiler pressure174 psi203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 23 5/8 x 27 9/16 intwo, 25 9/16 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area45.2 sq ft48 sq ft54.8 sq ft
Firebox area190.5 sq ft194.6 sq ft194.8 sq ft
Tube heating area1,940.7 sq ft1,896.3 sq ft1,970.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,131.3 sq ft2,090.9 sq ft2,165.4 sq ft
Superheater area524.2 sq ft651.1 sq ft774.7 sq ft
Total heating area2,655.5 sq ft2,742 sq ft2,940.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Wacław Marian Łopuszyński
last changed: 07/2023
Imperial Russian Railways series Е
Russian Empire | 1915 | 881 produced

After entering the First World War, the Russian Empire urgently needed heavy freight locomotives in order to be able to transport war supplies over mountainous sections. The aim was to replace the outdated Series Ф (F) Fairlie locomotives. It was planned to order a single-frame locomotive with five coupled axles. Since there was no way at that time to produce large numbers in Russia in a short time, the locomotives were ordered in North America.

20 years earlier Baldwin had delivered two four-cylinder compound locomotives in 2-10-0 wheel arrangement to the Transcaucasian Railway, which were known as the ДK (D-K) series. Now there was the opportunity to purchase 400 locomotives from North American manufacturers in a short time. 250 came from Baldwin, 100 from ALCO and 50 from the CLC. The designs originated in Russia and were adapted to imperial dimensions in America for ease of production. The grate area was set at six square meters in order to be able to burn coal of a lower quality. The first 400 locomotives from the three manufacturers were named EФ for Philadelphia (Baldwin), Ec for Schenectady (ALCO) or Ek for Kingston (CLC).

A further batch with minor improvements was designated EЛ in honor of Lomonosov. When the USA entered the war, it was possible to produce larger quantities as war aid. In total, depending on the source, about 881 pieces were delivered to the Russian Empire, some of which were lost on the long sea route from New York to the Far East. About 200 pieces were distributed to customers in the USA because they could not be delivered after the October 1917 revolution.

Although the engines were a successful design, they initially showed some deficits in operation. These were in part due to corrosion during sea transport, which led to problems with the firebox and other assemblies. Likewise, people in Russia were not yet familiar with the maintenance of the bar frames that are common in North America and therefore initially had to contend with high failure rates. Gradually, however, one could become friends with the machines and found ways to maintain them sufficiently. Thus, later larger numbers of the series Е of the Soviet railways were built.

General
Built1915-1918
ManufacturerBaldwin, ALCO, Canadian Locomotive Co.
Axle config2-10-0 (Decapod) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco40 ft 6 1/16 in
Wheelbase27 ft 9 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 8 in
Total wheelbase60 ft 3 5/8 in
Service weight187,393 lbs
Adhesive weight165,567 lbs
Water capacity7,397 us gal
Fuel capacity17,637 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,923 hp (1,434 kW)
Optimal speed47 mph
Top speed43 mph
Starting effort26,354 lbf
with start valve31,625 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52 in
Boiler pressure184 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylinderstwo, 25 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area64.6 sq ft
Firebox area207.7 sq ft
Tube heating area2,393.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,601 sq ft
Superheater area659.8 sq ft
Total heating area3,260.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
war locomotive
last changed: 09/2022
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