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Soviet Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
Soviet Railways series М
Soviet Union | 1926 | 100 produced
M 160-01 on an illustration from a 1927 magazine
M 160-01 on an illustration from a 1927 magazine
Variantas builtrebuilt two-cylinder
General
Built1926-1930
ManufacturerPutilow, Lugansk
Axle config4-8-0 (Twelve-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase35 ft 0 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 4 5/16 in
Total wheelbase64 ft 5 5/8 in
Service weight219,415 lbs
Adhesive weight159,835 lbs
Total weight355,936 lbs
Axle load40,124 lbs
Water capacity7,133 us gal
Fuel capacity17,637 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,012 hp (1,500 kW)2,280 hp (1,700 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph44 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort44,730 lbf33,269 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66.9 in
Boiler pressure188 psi210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 21 1/4 x 27 9/16 intwo, 21 1/4 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area64.6 sq ft
Firebox area198.6 sq ft
Tube heating area2,596 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,794.6 sq ft
Superheater area1,029.6 sq ft
Total heating area3,824.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 09 2023
Soviet Railways series ИС
later series ФДП
Soviet Union | 1932 | 649 produced

At the beginning of the thirties, the SŽD commissioned a locomotive for heavy passenger trains that had an axle load of 20 tonnes and a driver diameter of 1,850 mm. As wheel arrangement, 2-8-4 was chosen, which was used in the USA for fast freight trains, and the locomotive was named “ИС 20” (IS 20) after Josef Stalin, where the 20 stood for the axle load in tonnes. It was based on the 2-10-2 freight locomotive ФД (FD) and used the same boiler as well as other components from it.

It was the largest passenger steam locomotive in Europe at the time, but didn't show good running characteristics in curves at high speeds. From 1941 onwards, eleven locomotives were built with a larger superheater, which had an axle load of 21 tonnes and were therefore referred to as ИС 21. As part of the de-Stalinization, the ИС was renamed ФДП in 1962, which distinguished it as a passenger variant of the ФД. The last ones were in use until 1972.

VariantИС 20ИС 21
General
Built1932-19411941-1942
ManufacturerKolomna, Lugansk, Ulan-Ude
Axle config2-8-4 (Berkshire) 
Gauge4 ft 11 13/16 in (Russian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco53 ft 8 5/16 in
Wheelbase41 ft 4 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 2 5/16 in
Empty weight260,145 lbs
Service weight293,214 lbs299,828 lbs
Adhesive weight177,913 lbs180,779 lbs
Axle load44,533 lbs45,195 lbs
Water capacity8,718 us gal12,944 us gal
Fuel capacity26,455 lbs (coal)48,502 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power3,158 hp (2,355 kW)3,165 hp (2,360 kW)
Optimal speed38 mph
Top speed71 mph
Starting effort53,565 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72.8 in
Boiler pressure218 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 3/8 x 30 5/16 in
Boiler
Grate area75.8 sq ft
Firebox area336.2 sq ft
Tube heating area2,840.9 sq ft2,330.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,177.1 sq ft2,666.2 sq ft
Superheater area1,329.3 sq ft1,597.4 sq ft
Total heating area4,506.4 sq ft4,263.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 11/2023
Soviet Railways series ГР
Soviet Union | 1947 | 420 produced
ГР No. 286 in the Stare Selo open-air museum in Ukraine
ГР No. 286 in the Stare Selo open-air museum in Ukraine
VargA

After the Second World War, the Soviet Union needed a large number of narrow-gauge steam locomotives for use on forest and industrial railways with a gauge of 750 mm. As reparations, a total of 420 locomotives of the ГР (GR) series were built in the GDR, which stood for “Germanskaja reparazja”. The prototype stayed in the GDR and two more went to the Mansfeld mine railway, all others were delivered to the Soviet Union. The locomotives had wood firing in order to get cheaper fuel when operating in the forest. The second and third axles were laterally movable for better running characteristics in curves. They were retired between the mid 1970's and early 1980's.

General
Built1947-1956
ManufacturerLKM Babelsberg
Axle config0-8-0 (Eight-coupled) 
Gauge2 ft 5 1/2 in
Dimensions and Weights
Length39 ft 5 in
Wheelbase9 ft 2 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 2 1/4 in
Empty weight51,588 lbs
Service weight56,438 lbs
Adhesive weight56,438 lbs
Total weight87,303 lbs
Axle load14,110 lbs
Water capacity1,453 us gal
Fuel capacity6,614 lbs (wood)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power295 hp (220 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort17,000 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter31.5 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 9/16 x 15 3/4 in
Boiler
Grate area17.2 sq ft
Firebox area65 sq ft
Tube heating area396.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area461.7 sq ft
Superheater area204.5 sq ft
Total heating area666.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
narrow gauge
last changed: 03/2023
Soviet Railways series КЧ-4
Soviet Union | 1949 | 424 produced
КЧ-4 Nro 100 in Tallinn
КЧ-4 Nro 100 in Tallinn
lifar
General
Built1949-1952
ManufacturerŠkoda
Axle config0-8-0 (Eight-coupled) 
Gauge2 ft 5 1/2 in
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight35,274 lbs
Adhesive weight35,274 lbs
Total weight61,729 lbs
Axle load8,818 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power177 hp (132 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed22 mph
Starting effort10,085 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter23.6 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 1/4 x 11 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area11.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
last changed: 08 2023
Soviet Railways series КП-4
Soviet Union | 1950 | 901 produced
КП-4 No. 3772 of the Bieszczady forest railway in July 2018 at Majdan station
КП-4 No. 3772 of the Bieszczady forest railway in July 2018 at Majdan station
Michal Derela
General
Built1950-1957
ManufacturerFablok
Axle config0-8-0 (Eight-coupled) 
Gauge2 ft 5 1/2 in, 2 ft 6 in (Two feet six inch)
Dimensions and Weights
Length34 ft 11 1/16 in
Length loco18 ft 8 7/8 in
Wheelbase7 ft 4 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 4 9/16 in
Total wheelbase26 ft 10 13/16 in
Empty weight30,865 lbs
Service weight35,274 lbs
Adhesive weight35,274 lbs
Total weight61,729 lbs
Axle load8,818 lbs
Water capacity1,374 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power177 hp (132 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed22 mph
Starting effort10,085 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter23.6 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 1/4 x 11 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area10.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area399.9 sq ft
Superheater area145.1 sq ft
Total heating area545 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
last changed: 10 2023
Soviet Railways series Е
Soviet Union | 1944 | 2,123 produced
E<sup>a</sup> No. 3510
Ea No. 3510
Emoskvin

Just as the Imperial Russian State Railways had received the “Russian Decapods” from North American manufacturers in the First World War, larger numbers were again ordered from Baldwin and ALCO in the Second World War. These not only received the class designation E again, but were also based directly on the older locomotives. They were simplified for faster and cheaper wartime production.

Compared to their predecessors, they had a larger superheater, a stoker and welding technology was used. For safe transport across sea, the frames were reinforced, increasing weight and improving traction. Overall, they were around 20 to 25 percent more powerful.

A total of 2,123 were built between 1944 and 1947, of which 20 went to Finland and ten to China. With the introduction of diesel and electric locomotives in the Soviet Union, they were relocated to more remote areas such as Siberia in the 1950s. They were decommissioned in the seventies and eighties.

General
Built1944-1947
ManufacturerBaldwin, ALCO
Axle config2-10-0 (Decapod) 
Gauge5 ft (Broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco41 ft 7 1/2 in
Wheelbase27 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 8 in
Total wheelbase60 ft 3 1/2 in
Service weight224,200 lbs
Adhesive weight199,000 lbs
Axle load39,900 lbs
Water capacity7,400 us gal
Fuel capacity16,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,950 hp (1,454 kW)
Optimal speed24 mph
Starting effort51,490 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 25 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area64.6 sq ft
Firebox area227 sq ft
Tube heating area2,240 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,467 sq ft
Superheater area820 sq ft
Total heating area3,287 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
war locomotive
last changed: 02/2024
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