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Italian Railcars and Multiple Units[Inhalt]
Rete Mediterranea MACfce No. 5111 to 5130
Italian State Railway E.10
Italy | 1901 | 20 produced
The Street Railway Journal, August 1901

From 1901 to 1951, the Varese railway of the Rete Mediterranea from Milan via Varese to Porto Ceresio was equipped with a power supply of 650 volts direct current via a conductor rail. Passenger services began with 20 MACfce railcars, whose electrical equipment, including the four traction motors, came from General Electric. The car body was built by Officine Meccaniche in Milan and was based on the Interurban trams, which were very popular in the USA at the time. When the Italian State Railways took over operations in 1905, they were redesignated E.101 to E.120. After the railcars 5111 to 5130 followed five more powerful MCDUfce with the numbers 5301 to 5305 and 16 lighter MACfce[/ t] with the numbers 5131 to 5146. The use of the 5111 to 5130 ended in 1923 when the E.321 series locomotives went into service. The traction motors and other electrical equipment were used to build the six-axle E.620 series locomotives.

General
Built1901
Manufacturermechanical part: Officine Meccaniche, electrical part: General Electric
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats73
Dimensions and Weights
Length60 ft 0 1/16 in
Wheelbase43 ft 3 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 2 5/8 in
Service weight90,389 lbs
Adhesive weight90,389 lbs
Axle load22,708 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system650 V
Hourly power590 hp (440 kW)
Continuous power375 hp (280 kW)
Top speed53 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
local
third rail
last changed: 01/2022
Rete Adriatica classes 30 and 32
Italy | 1902 | 10 produced
Class 30 railcar in use on the Veltinbahn
Class 30 railcar in use on the Veltinbahn

While the two class 34 electric locomotives were procured for the transport of freight trains on the Ferrovia della Valtellina, which was electrified with 3,000 volts three-phase alternating current, five class 30 and 32 railcars were created. They consisted of a nearly 19 meter long car body and two bogies, whose four axles were all driven and were also manufactured by Ganz. Class 30 was divided into a saloon and a compartment with 24 first-class seats, in class 32, in addition to the first-class compartment, there was a third-class compartment with 32 seats and a room for mail and luggage. At the FS they were given the designations E.1 and E.2 with the serial numbers E.1-5 and E.21-25.

The inflexible three-phase system posed greater problems at the required speed, which was higher than that of the class 34. If the engines were designed for a higher maximum speed, it would not have been possible to generate sufficient starting power. This was solved by the fact that the inner motor on each bogie was only operated with 300 volts and was used for starting. Later it was switched to the outer motors, which received the 3,000 volts directly from the overhead line and were sufficient for up to 66 km/h. The number of poles in the motors has been switched for finer control. The power was initially picked up by trolley contacts, but since these were unreliable, they were soon replaced by contact strips. The engines were spring-mounted and power was transmitted via hollow shafts, which was remarkable for the time. The vehicles were stationed in Monza between 1914 and 1923 and were then used as passenger cars without a motor for a long time.

General
Built1902
ManufacturerGanz
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length62 ft 10 3/4 in
Wheelbase45 ft 11 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 2 7/16 in
Service weight123,459 lbs
Adhesive weight123,459 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - three-phase
Electric system3.000 V 15,6 Hz
Continuous power590 hp (440 kW)
Top speed41 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
local
last changed: 03/2022
Mediterranea-Calabro-Lucane M1
Italy | 1933 | 45 produced
M1c No. 82 rack railbus of the Ferrovie Calabro Lucane in 1984 at Catanzaro Lido
M1c No. 82 rack railbus of the Ferrovie Calabro Lucane in 1984 at Catanzaro Lido
Smiley.toerist
VariantM1M1c
General
Built1933-1953
ManufacturerCarminati & Toselli, Officine Meccaniche, Piaggio
Axle config1A 1A 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats2935
Dimensions and Weights
Length26 ft 9 5/8 in31 ft 4 3/4 in
Wheelbase13 ft 9 3/8 in18 ft 4 1/2 in
Service weight14,550 lbs26,235 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed62 mph
EngineOM-SaurerGeneral Motors
Engine type6-cyl. diesel
Engine output123 hp (92 kW)170 hp (127 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
railbus
local
cog railway
last changed: 10 2023
Italian State Railway ETR 200
Italy | 1936 | 18 produced
Record train ETR 232 in March 2010 in Pistoia
Record train ETR 232 in March 2010 in Pistoia
Jollyroger
Variant001-006007-014015-018
General
Built1936-1941
ManufacturerBreda
Axle configB-1A-A1-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats104100
Dimensions and Weights
Length206 ft 0 7/16 in
Wheelbase67 ft 3 1/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Empty weight228,399 lbs242,288 lbs247,358 lbs
Service weight257,500 lbs276,680 lbs281,530 lbs
Adhesive weight189,597 lbs205,250 lbs208,778 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system3,000 V
Hourly power1,408 hp (1,050 kW)
Top speed99 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
long distance
last changed: 09 2023
Italian State Railway ETR.300 “Settebello”
Italy | 1952 | 3 produced
CiroTren

The ETR.300 was a luxury electric multiple unit popularly known as the “Settebello” (“Beautiful Seven”). It consisted of seven car bodies, each connected in three groups with Jakobs bogies. At both ends there were panoramic windows with the driver's cabs in the roof. With twelve traction motors in a total of 20 axles, an hourly output of 2,280 kW and a maximum speed of 160 km/h could initially be reached. Since being rebuilt in 1969, they made 3,144 kW and 200 km/h. The trains, which from 1956 consisted only of first class, were primarily used on the Milan-Naples mainline and later as a TEE. Their use ended in 1992 and the ETR.302 has been refurbished since 2020.

Variantas builtrebuilt 1969
General
Built1952-1959
ManufacturerBreda
Axle configB-2-B+B-2-2-B+B-2-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats190
Dimensions and Weights
Length542 ft 11 3/4 in
Wheelbase75 ft 5 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Empty weight685,637 lbs723,115 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system3,000 V
Hourly power3,058 hp (2,280 kW)4,216 hp (3,144 kW)
Continuous power2,414 hp (1,800 kW)3,508 hp (2,616 kW)
Top speed99 mph124 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
long distance
high speed train
last changed: 07/2023
Italian State Railway ETR 450
Italy | 1987 | 15 produced
An ETR 450 in 1990 towards Monzuno, Bolognese Apennines
An ETR 450 in 1990 towards Monzuno, Bolognese Apennines
Sandro Baldi
General
Built1987-1992
ManufacturerFIAT, Ercole Marelli
Axle config1A-A1+1A-A1+1A-A1+1A-A1+2-2+1A-A1+1A-A1+1A-A1+1A-A1 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats390
Dimensions and Weights
Length767 ft 4 11/16 in
Wheelbase70 ft 0 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 0 7/16 in
Empty weight959,010 lbs
Axle load26,455 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DC
Electric system3,000 V
Hourly power7,467 hp (5,568 kW)
Continuous power6,716 hp (5,008 kW)
Top speed155 mph
Starting effort42,714 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
long distance
high speed train
tilting
last changed: 09 2023
Italian State Railway ETR 460, ETR 470 and ETR 480
Italy | 1993 | 34 produced
ETR 470 Cisalpino at the lower Hauenstein in Switzerland
ETR 470 Cisalpino at the lower Hauenstein in Switzerland
David Gubler

The ETR 460, 470 and 480 series are “Pendolino” express trains with tilting technology, which are considered the successors of the ETR 450 and were designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. The nine-car trains each are powered on one axle of both bogies in six of the cars. By distributing the power train, it was possible to achieve a low axle load of 13.5 tonnes, which allows the car body to be inclined by up to eight degrees without having to reinforce the structure of the tracks. The three series were created for suitability for different power systems.

The ETR 460 is the original model that was built ten times and is only used on the classic Italian lines with 3,000 volts DC. The ETR 470 is also equipped for 15,000 volts and 16⅔ Hz alternating current and is intended for cross-border traffic to Switzerland and Germany. The nine sets were initially deployed jointly by Cisalpino and, after their dissolution, divided between SBB and Trenitalia. The ETR 480, built 15 times, can be used not only with 3,000 volts direct current but also with 25,000 volts 50 Hz alternating current, which is used on some of the newer Italian high-speed routes. The ETR 470 is only certified for 200 km/h, the others for 250 km/h.

Most of the trains are still in use, only the SBB complained about a disproportionately high number of problems and retired the trains. Three were scrapped in 2015 and only one was leased to Trenitalia. The Italian examples were modernized from 2004 and some came to the Greek subsidiary of Trenitalia, where they are used on the Athens-Thessaloniki route. The ETR 480 used for this were already equipped for the 25.000 Volts 50 Hz power system and the ETR 470 still had to be converted. Similar trains based on the ETR 460, 470 and 480 were built in other countries: in the Czech Republic the CD series 680, in Portugal the CP series 4000 “Alfa Pendular”, in Slovenia the SŽ series 310 and in Finland the VR series Sm3. The British Class 390 is also based on the Italian Pendolino.

VariantETR 460ETR 470ETR 480ETR 485
General
Built1993-19951994-19971997-1999
ManufacturerFIAT
Axle config1A-A1+1A-A1+2-2+2-2+1A-A1+1A-A1+2-2+1A-A1+1A-A1 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats480475481
Dimensions and Weights
Length776 ft 2 15/16 in
Empty weight896,178 lbs994,284 lbs954,600 lbs1,000,897 lbs
Axle load29,762 lbs31,967 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DCelectric - AC/DCelectric - DCelectric - AC/DC
Electric system3,000 V15.000 V 16⅔ Hz, 3,000 V3,000 V25,000 V 50 Hz, 3,000 V
Hourly power8,046 hp (6,000 kW)
Continuous power7,885 hp (5,880 kW)
Top speed155 mph124 mph155 mph
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
long distance
high speed train
tilting
last changed: 01/2022
Italian State Railway ETR 500
Italy | 1992 | 57 produced
ETR 500 in October 2015 exiting Rome-Tiburtina station northbound
ETR 500 in October 2015 exiting Rome-Tiburtina station northbound
Nelso Silva

For the Florence-Rome high-speed line, which was completed in 1991, the FS procured the ETR 500 from a consortium called TREVI. This has power cars at both ends and is designed for a top speed of 300 km/h. Since this line is operated with 3,000 volts direct current and therefore the total transferable power is limited, the first series trains, known as “Monotensione”, only reached 250 km/h.

From the year 2000 onwards, additional power cars were built that are multi-system capable for new high-speed lines with 25 kV alternating current and are therefore referred to as “Politensione”. Some of these received the trailers of first generation trains, while the older power cars are used with conventional IC cars up to 200 km/h. The newer trains now run in the Frecciarossa train type.

VariantMonotensione 11 trailersPolitensione 8 trailersPolitensione 12 trailers
General
Built1992-19962000-2005
ManufacturerTREVI
Axle configB-B+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+B-BB-B+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+B-B B-B+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+B-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats656404671
Dimensions and Weights
Length1074 ft 9 5/8 in817 ft 10 15/16 in1162 ft 6 in
Length loco67 ft 5 5/8 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 10 1/8 in
Empty weight1,318,363 lbs1,005,307 lbs1,410,957 lbs
Adhesive weight299,828 lbs
Axle load37,479 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - DCelectric - AC/DC
Electric system3,000 V25,000 V 50 Hz, 3,000 V, 1,500 V
Continuous power11,801 hp (8,800 kW)
Top speed155 mph186 mph
Starting effort76,435 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
power cars
long distance
high speed train
last changed: 03/2024
Italian State Railway ETR 700 (AnsaldoBreda V250)
Netherlands | 2008 | 19 produced
ETR 700 in November 2019 at Lodi
ETR 700 in November 2019 at Lodi
Arbalete
General
Built2008-2013
ManufacturerAnsaldoBreda
Axle configB-B+2-2+B-B+2-2+2-2+B-B+2-2+B-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats546
Dimensions and Weights
Length659 ft 1 7/16 in
Empty weight932,554 lbs
Service weight1,069,241 lbs
Axle load37,479 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC/DC
Electric system25,000 V 50 Hz, 3,000 V, 1,500 V
Continuous power7,376 hp (5,500 kW)
Top speed155 mph
Starting effort67,443 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
long distance
high speed train
last changed: 10 2023
Italian State Railway Frecciarossa 1000 (Zefiro)
ETR 400 / V300 Zefiro
Italy | 2013 | 87 produced
Frecciarossa 1000 in October 2015
Frecciarossa 1000 in October 2015
Nelso Silva
General
Builtsince 2013
ManufacturerAnsaldoBreda, Hitachi, Bombardier
Axle configB-B+2-2+B-B+2-2+2-2+B-B+2-2+B-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats455
Dimensions and Weights
Length662 ft 8 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 4 3/16 in
Empty weight1,016,330 lbs
Service weight1,097,901 lbs
Axle load38,140 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC/DC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz, 25,000 V 50 Hz, 3,000 V, 1,500 V
Continuous power13,142 hp (9,800 kW)
Top speed217 mph
Starting effort83,179 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
high speed train
long distance
multi-system
Bombardier multiple unit
Bombardier Zefiro
last changed: 09 2023
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