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Tank Locomotives 2-4-0T “Porter”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 1B and 1'B
Antwerpen & Gent No. 30 and 31
Belgium | 1892 | 2 produced
No. 31 as built
No. 31 as built
Locomotive Magazine, April 1893
After the standard gauge rebuilt
After the standard gauge rebuilt
Locomotive Magazine, April 1893

The Antwerp-Ghent Railway ordered these two locomotives with the intention of later converting them to standard gauge. So they were built by the manufacturer in such a way that the wheels with a gauge of 3 ft 7 in can be removed inside the frame and reinstalled outside the frame with a gauge of 4 ft 8 1/2 in. This plan was implemented in 1899, at the same time the cab was closed and the Westinghouse air brake was retrofitted.

Variantas builtRebuilt standard gauge
General
Built18921899
ManufacturerSaint Leonard
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge3 ft 7 in (Narrow gauge)4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length26 ft 3 1/2 in
Wheelbase13 ft 11 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 11 1/2 in
Empty weight63,840 lbs
Service weight77,280 lbs
Adhesive weight58,240 lbs
Axle load29,120 lbs
Water capacity793 us gal
Fuel capacity1,540 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power275 hp (205 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph
Starting effort9,875 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter55 in
Boiler pressure142 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area17.8 sq ft
Firebox area76.4 sq ft
Tube heating area580 sq ft
Evaporative heating area656.4 sq ft
Total heating area656.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
freight
narrow gauge
last changed: 03/2023
Avonside Engine Company standard narrow gauge 2-4-0T
Great Britain | 1903 | unknown number
Locomotive Magazine, August 1903

The Avonside Engine Company offered a range of standard narrow gauge tank locomotives that could be ordered with various gauge and cylinder diameter combinations. In order to ensure a long service life and low wear, some assemblies were made of harder steel than actually required and the friction surfaces on wear-intensive parts were made wider.

A slightly larger type of locomotive with a 2-4-0T wheel arrangement is represented by the “India”. It was available in gauges of 3 feet, metre gauge and 3 feet 6 inches and intended for mixed traffic. The cylinder diameter could be chosen between ten and 17 inches.

General
Built1903
ManufacturerAvonside
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power100 hp (75 kW)
Power Plant
Expansion typesimple
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
tank locomotive
secondary line
last changed: 07/2022
Bavarian D IX
German Reichsbahn class 7071
Germany | 1888 | 55 produced
Model of no. 1847
Model of no. 1847

The D IX was built between 1888 and 1899 by Maffei for the Bavarian State Railways, mainly to be used in front of light passenger trains on the Reichenhall-Freilassing-Salzburg route.

The chassis of the engines consisted of two coupled axles with wheels with a diameter of 1,340 mm and a fixed leading axle. Due to the relatively large wheelbase of the driving axles, which were also fixed, there was less than satisfactory running characteristics in curves and increased wear. The two cylinders were located in front of the leading axle, which turned out to be not the most advantageous layout in terms of vibrations and maintenance.

The maximum speed was 65 km/h, which was sufficient on secondary routes at the time. On the level, the locomotives could be fully utilized with trains up to a maximum of 170 tonnes, but at 2 percent only 20 km/h with a train load of 95 tonnes were possible. In view of the increasingly heavier trains, this performance was soon no longer sufficient, and so the D IX were replaced by six-coupled engines of the D VIII type.

They found their new field of application in the suburban lines of Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg, where almost all of the 55 locomotives made remained in use until after the First World War. They were assigned to class 7071 from 1925, when their ranks had already thinned out. All the rest were decommissioned by 1932.

General
Built1888-1899
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length27 ft 8 5/16 in
Service weight78,925 lbs
Adhesive weight54,675 lbs
Axle load27,337 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power201 hp (150 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed40 mph
Starting effort9,315 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter52.8 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 13 x 19 11/16 in
Boiler
Grate area12.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area648 sq ft
Total heating area648 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
tank locomotive
secondary line
last changed: 01/2022
Bavarian Pt 2/3
German Reichsbahn class 700
Germany | 1909 | 97 produced
Die Lokomotive, April 1919

The Pt 2/3 was a tank locomotive that was developed for lighter passenger trains and was delivered by Krauss a total of 97 times between 1909 and 1916. It prevailed in testing against the Pt 2/4 N.

Thanks to a superheater, it was now possible to build small locomotives with the simple 2-4-0T wheel arrangement that were still powerful. However, this arrangement of the axles was not derived from the classic 2-4-0 passenger locomotive, but was more in the tradition of the 2-2-0T branch line tank locomotives with a long wheelbase. By adding another coupled axle that can be shifted laterally by 25 mm at a minimal distance from the driving axle, a radially adjustable leading axle could be dispensed with. With this arrangement, a lightweight construction of the locomotive was possible, which consequently also reduced consumption and thus operating costs.

As with other smaller Bavarian tank locomotives, there was a passage at the rear. In order to save costs, the fireman had to take on the role of conductor at the same time. Later, the passage was eliminated in favor of a larger coal box. Another change, which was carried out until 1937, was the exchange of the rigidly installed leading axle for a bissel axle. 50 of the engines were converted in this way and now had the UIC wheel arrangement 1'B instead of 1B.

 70 083 in August 2008 in Zwiesel
70 083 in August 2008 in Zwiesel
Konrad Lackerbeck

In 1925, the Reichsbahn included all the engines built as numbers 70 001 to 70 097 in their inventory. After the war, the Bundesbahn took over all 89 remaining examples and used them in southern Germany. Due to their economic efficiency, they remained in use for longer and so the last one was only retired in 1963. Today only road number 70 083 is still operational. Four examples remained in Austria after the Second World War and were used by the ÖBB as class 770. One of these was used in Austria from 1999, but has now been taken to a museum.

Variant6001-60026003-60916092-6097
General
Built1909-1916
ManufacturerKrauss
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length29 ft 8 7/8 in30 ft 0 13/16 in30 ft 4 3/4 in
Wheelbase17 ft 10 9/16 in18 ft 0 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase17 ft 10 9/16 in18 ft 0 9/16 in
Service weight84,657 lbs87,082 lbs87,964 lbs
Adhesive weight59,966 lbs62,391 lbs62,611 lbs
Axle load29,983 lbs31,085 lbs31,306 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power416 hp (310 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph
Top speed40 mph
Starting effort12,895 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.2 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 3/4 x 19 11/16 in
Boiler
Grate area13.1 sq ft
Firebox area58.1 sq ft
Tube heating area567.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area625.3 sq ft
Superheater area197.6 sq ft
Total heating area822.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
secondary line
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Duke of Sutherland's Railway “Dunrobin” (II)
Great Britain | 1895 | 5 produced
On the Steam Expo Parade 1986 in Vancouver
On the Steam Expo Parade 1986 in Vancouver
Roger Puta

The Dukes of Sutherland operated a 17-mile-long railway in the north of Scotland, which, among other things, connected to mines. The third Duke had already received a small 2-4-0T tank locomotive from Kitson in 1871, which he used for private journeys. When the fourth Duke of Sutherland took office, he wanted a new locomotive.

This now had the wheel arrangement 0-4-4T and was delivered by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1895. Since its predecessor's locomotive had already been sold to the Highland Railway, the new one was again given the name “Dunrobin”, after the castle with the same name. It had a spacious cab to accommodate guests, some of whom also came from the royal family.

General
Built1895
ManufacturerSharp, Stewart & Co.
Axle config0-4-4T (Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase18 ft 1 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 3 in
Service weight70,000 lbs
Water capacity841 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power200 hp (149 kW)
Optimal speed18 mph
Starting effort7,182 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 13 x 18 in
Boiler
Grate area11 sq ft
Firebox area68 sq ft
Tube heating area517 sq ft
Evaporative heating area585 sq ft
Total heating area585 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
David Jones
last changed: 02/2024
Great Western Railway class 455 “Metropolitan Tanks”
Great Britain | 1868 | 140 produced
Original variant on a photo of around 1875
Original variant on a photo of around 1875
Locomotive Magazine, March 1906

For the Metropolitan and District Lines in London, Joseph Armstrong designed the Class 355, also known as “Metropolitan Tanks” or simply “Metro Tanks”. It was created with a driving wheel diameter of just five feet to ensure adequate acceleration. Since the underground tunnels were also to be run through, many locomotives were fitted with a condensation device. No driver's cab was installed, as Armstrong believed it would have reduced staff attention.

With enlarged water tanks and leading axle in outside frame
With enlarged water tanks and leading axle in outside frame
Locmotive Magazine, March 1903

The first 60 machines were built between 1868 and 1878 in three series of 20 units each. In the first two series, all axles were mounted in the inside frame, in the third series the leading axle was in external bearings and the wheelbase of the coupled axles was slightly larger. In the early years, the locomotives were also required to haul goods trains within London city limits until the Class 633 became available. After Armstrong's death, a total of seven more series with a total of 80 more locomotives were procured by William Dean between 1878 and 1899. These had a larger boiler and larger supplies.

No. 3593 rebuilt as 2-4-2T
No. 3593 rebuilt as 2-4-2T
Locmotive Magazine, December 1905

In the 1880s, the first series were already being rebuilt with a larger boiler and larger water tanks. Half and fully enclosed driver's cabs were retrofitted in later years. The first of the older machines were already retired around 1900. However, the newer ones in particular were used for a longer period of time.

With the electrification of the Metropolitan and District Lines in 1905 and 1907, the locomotives were also used on other lines. For this purpose, the condensation devices were removed and partially a push-pull train control was installed. For the routes of the underground, the GWR kept about 50 machines available until about 1930, which were then replaced by the class 6100 Large Prairies. Other locomotives were used in more rural regions and some were even used on the main line. In the thirties most were retired. A total of ten were still in existence when British Railways was founded in 1948, but these disappeared by 1949.

VariantArmstrong 1869Dean 1881
General
Built1868-18781881-1899
ManufacturerSwindon
Axle config2-4-0WT (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase15 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft
Service weight74,368 lbs88,704 lbs
Adhesive weight62,720 lbs
Axle load31,360 lbs
Water capacity1,139 us gal1,321 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal4,480 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power400 hp (298 kW)500 hp (373 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph24 mph
Starting effort12,186 lbf13,056 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure140 psi150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area15.8 sq ft16.4 sq ft
Firebox area87 sq ft99 sq ft
Tube heating area999 sq ft1,209 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,086 sq ft1,308 sq ft
Total heating area1,086 sq ft1,308 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
suburban
condensator
Joseph Armstrong
William Dean
last changed: 02/2023
Hoylake & Birkenhead Tramway “West Kirby” and “Birkenhead”
Great Britain | 1877 | 2 produced
Locomotive Magazine, January 1918

The Hoylake Railway operated a few miles of track on the Wirral Peninsula on the opposite bank of the Mersey river near Liverpool, which mostly served passenger services. It was founded in 1863 and was known as the Hoylake & Birkenhead Railway from 1872 after some line extensions. Today it is better known under the name Wirral Railway, which it has borne since 1884. In the grouping in 1923 it came to the LMS.

After 1873 it was decided to extend the route from Hoylake to West Kirby and two new tank locomotives had to be procured. They came from the Yorkshire Engine Company and were given the names “West Kirby” and “Birkenhead”. In principle, they were of a standard type of this manufacturer, only the driving wheel diameter was slightly larger at 60 inches and the firebox was also slightly larger than most comparable engines.

Both engines completed their service relatively unremarkably on the short branch line. Both were later sold to industrial companies in the region. The “West Kirby” came to a company called Josiah Hardman Ltd. at Milton while the “Birkenhead” landed at the coal mine called “Talk o'th' Hill”. Locomotive Magazine stated in January 1918 that both were apparently still in service at the time.

General
Built1877
ManufacturerYorkshire Engine Co.
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase12 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 6 in
Service weight54,207 lbs
Adhesive weight39,740 lbs
Axle load22,315 lbs
Water capacity901 us gal
Fuel capacity2,464 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power200 hp (149 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Starting effort8,052 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure145 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area8.3 sq ft
Firebox area55.5 sq ft
Tube heating area555.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area611 sq ft
Total heating area611 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 06/2022
London & South Western class 0298 “Beattie well tanks”
Great Britain | 1863 | 82 produced
No. 263 in the condition as delivered
No. 263 in the condition as delivered
Bulgarisches Staatsarchiv

For the operation of their London suburban lines, the LSWR planned to purchase small, three-axle tank locomotives. Between 1852 and 1859, Joseph Hamilton Beattie had a total of 26 tank locomotives of different designs built in order to determine the optimal design. Although some of the locomotives also had the 2-2-2T wheel arrangement, the choice fell on the 2-4-0T wheel arrangement and a driving wheel diameter of 66 inches. This ensured good acceleration, but also sufficient speed on sections with larger distances between stations.

Between 1863 and 1875 Beyer, Peacock & Co. built 82 locomotives. By 1872 the LSWR had built three more in their own workshops at Nine Elms. The cylinder diameter of the first copies was 15 inches, this was later increased to 15.5 and then to 16.5 inches. The last twelve locomotives again had cylinders with a diameter of 15.5 inches, but a stroke of 22 instead of 21 inches. The two water tanks were located above the leading axle and under the driver's cab floor. Since this design is referred to as “well tanks” in the English-speaking world, they were given their well-known nickname.

From 1890 they were pushed out of their original area of operation because more powerful tank locomotives were now available on the London suburban lines. Outside the metropolitan area, their water capacity soon proved inadequate. A total of 31 had been rebuilt into tender locomotives from 1883 onwards. The largest part of the fleet was retired by 1899, of which only the three with the numbers 298, 314 and 329 from the construction years 1874 and 1875 were spared.

Preserved No. 0314 at Buckinghamshire Railway Centre
Preserved No. 0314 at Buckinghamshire Railway Centre
Oxyman

These three came to the Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway in Cornwall, which carried kaolinite or “China Clay” to the main line. They underwent extensive modernization, including the addition of a cab. All three came to British Railways, where they were considered the oldest locomotive type still in use, if not the oldest locomotives at all. Two of them were preserved after they were retired in 1962 and are still operational today.

Variantas builtconverted tender locomotive
General
Built1863-18751883-1887
ManufacturerBeyer, Peacock & Co., Nine ElmsNine Elms
Axle config2-4-0WT (Porter) 2-4-0 (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length26 ft 2 in
Service weight77,168 lbs73,936 lbs
Adhesive weight53,648 lbs
Total weight120,416 lbs
Water capacity600 us gal
Fuel capacity2,240 lbs (coal)coal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power225 hp (168 kW)375 hp (280 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph24 mph
Starting effort7,534 lbf9,901 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66 in
Boiler pressure130 psi160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 x 20 intwo, 15 1/2 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area14.8 sq ft
Firebox area80 sq ft96.8 sq ft
Tube heating area715 sq ft915.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area795 sq ft1,012 sq ft
Total heating area795 sq ft1,012 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Joseph Hamilton Beattie
last changed: 06/2022
Midland & South Western Junction No 5 to 7
Great Britain | 1882 | 3 produced
Locomotive Magazine, May 1900

Starting in 1882, this Joint Railway operated three tank locomotives with a 2-4-0T wheel arrangement for use in front of passenger trains. These were a standard Beyer, Peacock & Co. design with five and a half foot diameter driving wheels. Number 6 is recorded as later being sold to the Wight Central Railway. In 1884, a slightly larger machine from the same manufacturer followed, bearing the number 8.

General
Built1882
ManufacturerBeyer, Peacock & Co.
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase14 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 2 in
Service weight79,016 lbs
Adhesive weight60,480 lbs
Axle load32,480 lbs
Water capacity901 us gal
Fuel capacity2,464 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power300 hp (224 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph
Starting effort11,078 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66 in
Boiler pressure140 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area14.8 sq ft
Firebox area72.4 sq ft
Tube heating area880 sq ft
Evaporative heating area952.4 sq ft
Total heating area952.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 03/2023
Prussian T 2 - first Berlin type
German Reichsbahn class 8870
Germany | 1881 | 70 produced
Die Lokomotive, August 1914
General
Built1881-1882
ManufacturerSchichau
Axle config2-4-0T (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length28 ft 11 5/8 in
Length loco28 ft 11 5/8 in
Wheelbase13 ft 1 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 1 1/2 in
Empty weight71,496 lbs
Service weight90,235 lbs
Adhesive weight61,222 lbs
Axle load32,452 lbs
Water capacity1,231 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power201 hp (150 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph
Top speed47 mph
Starting effort9,009 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62.8 in
Boiler pressure145 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 3/16 x 22 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area11.3 sq ft
Firebox area56 sq ft
Tube heating area663.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area719 sq ft
Total heating area719 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
suburban
tank locomotive
last changed: 08 2023
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