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Tank Locomotives 4-4-2T “Atlantic”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2'B1'
Great Central classes 9K and 9L
London & North Eastern classes C13 and C14
Great Britain | 1903 | 52 produced
9K No. 1055
9K No. 1055
Locomotive Magazine, April 1903

Between 1903 and 1905 the Great Central Railway procured a total of 40 class 9K tank locomotives for the suburban routes of London, which were based on the 2-4-2T class 9G tank locomotives and were designed by John G. Robinson. They were created by enlarging the boiler on the 9G and accommodating the extra weight and length by replacing the leadingaq axle with a bogie. They were stationed at London's Marylebone railway station and were distinguished by the fact that they were fitted with appropriate scooping devices for the water troughs introduced at the time to refill water during the journey. A further twelve class 9L locomotives followed in 1907. By widening the water tanks by three inches, they had a larger water capacity and the higher walls of the coal bunker meant that more coal could be carried.

The use in London did not last long, as the electric railcars could run at higher average speeds on competing routes and the steam locomotives therefore had to be more powerful. This led to the introduction of the class 9N with the 4-6-2T wheel arrangement from 1911. The 9K and 9L were subsequently moved to other locations and used, for example, on suburban routes from Manchester or in central England for regional trains. In 1914 and 1915, a 9L and a 9K were each fitted with a boiler with a superheater, but these initially remained one-offs.

9L No. 1120
9L No. 1120
Locomtive Magazine, July 1907

After the LNER took over operations in 1923, the classes were now designated C13 and C14. After a short time, shorter chimneys were installed to ensure suitability for the loading gauge of the entire LNER network. In addition, the scoops were removed because they weren't really necessary on short-haul routes. Between 1926 and 1935, all locomotives were given a new boiler with a superheater as part of the scheduled boiler replacement. British Railways took over all examples in 1948 and used them unchanged until the mid-1950s. New competition now arose in the form of the new diesel railcars, which soon made them superfluous. Almost all locomotives were scrapped between 1957 and 1959 and one locomotive of each class was used until 1960.

General
Built1903-1905
ManufacturerVulcan Foundry, Beyer, Peacock & Co.
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase29 ft 10 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 1 in
Empty weight140,784 lbs
Service weight160,719 lbs
Adhesive weight70,896 lbs
Axle load41,440 lbs
Water capacity1,741 us gal
Fuel capacity8,176 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power600 hp (447 kW)
Optimal speed22 mph
Starting effort17,099 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter67 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area20 sq ft
Firebox area110 sq ft
Tube heating area1,033 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,143 sq ft
Total heating area1,143 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
John George Robinson
last changed: 04/2022
Great Western Railway class 2221 “County Tank”
Great Britain | 1905 | 30 produced
Locomotive Magazine, April 1906

As a successor to the fast suburban Class 3600 “Birdcage”, Churchward developed a tank locomotive from the Class 3800 “County” by adding a trailing axle and storing water and coal supplies on the locomotive. It used the slightly smaller GWR Standard No. 2 boiler, which also had a Belpaire firebox and was tapered towards the front. Only number 2230 received the same County class boiler, but was also quickly upgraded to the smaller standard boiler.

The side water tanks had a forward sloping ceiling to match the tapered boiler barrel. They allowed the water capacity to be increased from the 1,500 gallons of earlier tank locomotives to 2,000 gallons, retaining good forward visibility. Scooping devices for water troughs were installed in both directions of travel in order to be able to fill up the water supplies more quickly during operation. Thanks to the driver diameter of 80.5 inches, the magazine “Die Lokomotive” still assumed in 1932 that it had to be the fastest tank locomotive in the world.

Between 1905 and 1912, three series of ten engines each were manufactured. The locomotives of the third series had a superheater installed ex works, and this was retrofitted to the first two series. Likewise, some locomotives were later provided with larger supplies. They were used in front of fast passenger trains in the suburbs of London.

Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Locomotive Magazine, August 1905

Thanks to the large wheels, the engines were suitable for use on the outer suburban lines without many intermediate stops. At the same time, however, this meant that the acceleration was not sufficient for the inner suburban routes. Another point of criticism was the insufficient running smoothness, since the wheelbase of the two coupled axles was very small and there were large moving masses due to the long cylinder stroke of 30 inches. So it came about that the “County Tanks” were replaced by the “Large Prairies” of the 6100 class between 1931 and 1934. With their driver diameter of 68 inches and three coupled axles, these represented a better compromise between speed and acceleration. Since no better area of application could be found for the class 2221, they were all scrapped.

Variantsaturatedsuperheated
General
Built1905-19091912
ManufacturerSwindon
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase32 ft
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Service weight160,719 lbs
Adhesive weight82,880 lbs
Axle load42,560 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity6,720 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power820 hp (611 kW)1,025 hp (764 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph32 mph
Starting effort20,527 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80.5 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area20.3 sq ft20.4 sq ft
Firebox area121.8 sq ft
Tube heating area1,438.2 sq ft1,145.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,560 sq ft1,267 sq ft
Superheater area83 sq ft
Total heating area1,560 sq ft1,350 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
George Jackson Churchward
last changed: 09/2022
London, Brighton & South Coast class I1
Great Britain | 1906 | 20 produced
collection Peter Boor

The I1 was built in two batches of ten locomotives each in 1906 and 1907 for the suburban lines in south London. They had a 4-4-2T wheel arrangement with a five foot six inch driving wheel diameter and a condensing apparatus for use in urban environments. In the second batch, the driving wheels and coupling rods of the class D1 were used, what shortened the wheelbase.

Occasionally they were also used as far as Brighton or hauled the royal train. However, they were bad steamers on suburban lines with short distances between stations. After being taken over by the Southern Railway, between 1925 and 1932 they received new superheated boilers left over from the rebuild of the classes I3 and B4. Now performing better only two were retired before 1948 and the the last ones of the remainder were used by British Railways until 1951.

General
Built1906-1907
ManufacturerBrighton
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight152,992 lbs
Adhesive weight81,984 lbs
Axle load40,992 lbs
Water capacity2,381 us gal
Fuel capacity7,280 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort17,433 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66 in
Boiler pressure170 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area17.4 sq ft
Firebox area93.3 sq ft
Tube heating area947.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,040.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,040.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
condensator
Douglas Earle Marsh
last changed: 07/2023
London & North Western Precursor Tank class
London, Midland & Scottish class 2P
Great Britain | 1906 | 50 produced
No. 528
No. 528

By adding a trailing axle and reducing the driving wheel diameter by six inches, George Whale developed the Precursor tank class from the Precursor class tender locomotive. It was intended to pull heavy passenger trains on branch lines, but had an axle load that was too high for many branch lines. A total of 50 locomotives were built, the last 20 of which had smaller wheels.

Not only were the cylinders between the frames, but also the leading sandbox. For this reason, the latter was very difficult to refill, which is why a separate filler neck had to be attached to the outside. Since the locomotives could no longer be adapted to growing requirements due to their wheel arrangement, they were all retired between 1927 and 1940.

General
Built1906-1909
ManufacturerCrewe
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase32 ft 7 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft
Service weight168,000 lbs
Adhesive weight89,600 lbs
Axle load44,800 lbs
Water capacity2,042 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power900 hp (671 kW)
Optimal speed31 mph
Starting effort18,616 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter75 in
Boiler pressure175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 19 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area22.4 sq ft
Firebox area161.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,848.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,009.7 sq ft
Total heating area2,009.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
George Whale
last changed: 03/2024
London & South Western class 415 “Radial Tanks”
Great Britain | 1882 | 71 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

For the suburban lines in London, William Adams provided his class 46, which had outside cylinders, with an additional trailing axle in order to be able to accommodate larger coal supplies. Since this axle was in a radial axle box, the locomotive was nicknamed the “Radial Tank”. Four manufacturers delivered a total of 71 locomotives, the last of which had a boiler pressure of 160 instead of 140 psi. As early as 1895, the locomotives were replaced by other locomotives in their original area of operation, after which they were relocated to branch lines in rural areas. After the first were retired in 1916, the largest number only disappeared between 1923 and 1928 under the Southern Railway. Three locomotives even survived on the Lyme Regis branch until 1961, because initially no other suitable locomotives were found for the tight curves. One of these today belongs to the Bluebell Railway but is not operational.

Variantfirst batcheslast batches
General
Built1882-1885
ManufacturerRobert Stephenson & Co., Dübs & Co., Neilson & Co., Beyer, Peackock & Co.
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length36 ft 5 1/2 in
Wheelbase29 ft 5 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Service weight125,664 lbs
Adhesive weight69,440 lbs
Axle load34,720 lbs
Water capacity1,441 us gal
Fuel capacity2,240 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power525 hp (391 kW)560 hp (418 kW)
Optimal speed26 mph24 mph
Starting effort13,054 lbf14,919 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter67 in
Boiler pressure140 psi160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/2 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area18.1 sq ft
Firebox area111 sq ft
Tube heating area945 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,056 sq ft
Total heating area1,056 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Willian Adams
last changed: 08/2023
London, Tilbury & Southend class 1
Great Britain | 1880 | 36 produced
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, September 1901

Until 1880 the Great Eastern took over the operation on the routes of the LT&SR and thus also provided the locomotives. When this agreement expired, Thomas Whitelegg began developing a new passenger tank locomotive for the suburban trains. He enjoyed the help of William Adams, who was the former superintendent of GER and was now with the London & South Western.

The result was based on the LSWR class 46 tank locomotive with a 4-4-0T wheel arrangement. The same driving wheel diameter was used and a trailing axle was added, giving a 4-4-2T wheel arrangement for the first time on a British tank locomotive. Although the trailing axle was mounted directly in the frame, the axle bearings were radially adjustable and thus reduced the fixed wheelbase of the locomotive. As with the class 46, the cylinders were on the outside.

The first production lot was 18 locomotives, delivered by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1880 and 1881. The same company supplied twelve more in 1885. It was not until 1895 that Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. supplied another six. From 1902 at least four were equipped with a condensation device, while some received a roof specially adapted to tunnels. All locomotives not only came to the Midland Railway in 1912, but also to the LMS in 1923. Their decommissioning took place between 1929 and 1936.

General
Built1880-1881, 1885, 1895
ManufacturerSharp, Stewart & Co., Nasmyth, Wilson & Co.
Axle config4-4-2T (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase29 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Service weight125,580 lbs
Adhesive weight71,792 lbs
Axle load35,896 lbs
Water capacity1,300 us gal
Fuel capacity4,480 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power400 hp (298 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph
Starting effort12,249 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure140 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area17.3 sq ft
Firebox area97 sq ft
Tube heating area923 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,020 sq ft
Total heating area1,020 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
Thomas Whitelegg
last changed: 01/2023
Burma Railways class C
Burma | 1896 | 4 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

In 1896, Neilson & Co. delivered two small 4-4-4T tank locomotives to the Burma Railways, which were designated class C. These had a axle load of less than eight tons and were fairly flexible with two two-axle bogies. They were oil-fired, but also had a small coal reserve. Their large firebox in relation to the tube heating surface indicates that they were well suited for commuter traffic with rapid acceleration and many stops.

General
Built1896
ManufacturerNeilson & Co.
Axle config4-4-4T (Reading) 
Gauge3 ft 3 3/8 in (Meter gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 7 in
Service weight81,872 lbs
Adhesive weight34,608 lbs
Axle load17,808 lbs
Water capacity1,153 us gal
Fuel capacity896 lbs (Kohle) und 1,950 us gal (Öl)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power350 hp (261 kW)
Optimal speed24 mph
Starting effort9,430 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53 in
Boiler pressure150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area12 sq ft
Firebox area105 sq ft
Tube heating area545 sq ft
Evaporative heating area650 sq ft
Total heating area650 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2024
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