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Tank Locomotives 2-2-2T “Jenny Lind”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 1A1
Cumberland Valley No. 13 “Pioneer”
United States | 1851 | only one produced
“Pioneer” at the 1948 Chicago Railroad Fair
“Pioneer” at the 1948 Chicago Railroad Fair
Dudley W. Thickens / collection Taylor Rush

The Cumberland Valley had a tank locomotive built by Seth Wilmarth in 1851, which was intended for passenger trains with a small number of passengers. The basic idea was to keep the ratio of the empty weight of the locomotive to the weight of the train as advantageous as possible in order to save costs. The wheel arrangement 2-2-2 was used, which was generally very rare in tank locomotives and was hardly found in the USA, even with tender locomotives. In addition to the “Pioneer” there was also the almost identical “Jenny Lind” and two other very similar locomotives.

Schematic drawing
Schematic drawing
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, October 1903

The “Pioneer” could accelerate a train of four passenger cars to 40 mph and achieved a high mileage for several years for her standards. After the Civil War, it was used in front of construction trains because its performance was no longer sufficient for modern passenger trains. Although it was later put into storage, it officially remained in service until 1901. It was then donated to the Smithsonian Institution and used as a working display at appropriate events.

General
Built1851
ManufacturerSeth Wilmarth
Axle config2-2-2T (Jenny Lind) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase13 ft 7 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 7 in
Service weight25,000 lbs
Water capacity600 us gal
Power
Power Plant
Driver diameter54 in
Boiler pressure100 psi
Cylinderstwo, 8 1/2 x 14 in
Boiler
Grate area5.3 sq ft
Firebox area41.1 sq ft
Tube heating area219 sq ft
Evaporative heating area260 sq ft
Total heating area260 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 09/2022
London, Brighton & South Coast Craven No. 98
Great Britain | 1859 | only one produced
Locomotive Magazine, January 1897

This was a single tank engine built for light duties on branch lines. Special features were an outer sandwich frame in which the carrying axles were mounted and an inner frame made of metal in which the driving axle was mounted. It left the Brighton Works in 1859 and initially bore no name. In 1873 it was christened “Seaford” and renumbered twice. There are reports of two accidents involving it. It was retired in September 1879 after being used on the Bognor branch.

General
Built1859
ManufacturerBrighton
Axle config2-2-2T (Jenny Lind) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase13 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 6 in
Service weight63,168 lbs
Adhesive weight22,400 lbs
Axle load22,400 lbs
Water capacity612 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Power Plant
Driver diameter66 in
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 x 20 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
John Chester Craven
last changed: 03/2023
North Eastern No. 66 “Aerolite”
London & North Eastern class X1
Great Britain | 1851 | only one produced
after the 1902 rebuild
after the 1902 rebuild

The North Eastern Railway ran two individual tank locomotives under the name “Aerolite”, the second of which survived the decades in different forms. They were developed to pull the “Mechanical Engieer's saloon”. The first “Aerolite” was actually built by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson for the Leeds Northern Railway in 1851 and was a 2-2-2T tank engine with water storage between the side rails and six feet driving wheels. It was shown at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace that same year and was destroyed in an accident in 1868.

The first Aerolite from 1851
The first Aerolite from 1851
Locomotive Magazine, October 1911

This was followed in 1869 by the second “Aerolite” built by the North Eastern workshops in Gateshead. It also had the same basic design as its predecessor, but received additional side tanks in 1886 for a larger water supply. While it previously only bore its name, it was now given the number 66 as well.

The second Aerolite from 1869
The second Aerolite from 1869
Locomotive Magazine, July 1926

In 1892 a rebuild took place, which corresponded to almost a complete new building. The resulting locomotive now had a leading bogie and carried its entire water supply in side tanks. The power plant was now a two-cylinder compound engine based on the Worsdell-Von Borries system with cylinders of 13 and 18.5 inches in diameter.

Another conversion took place in 1902, in which the wheel arrangement changed again. The bogie was now at the rear, while at the front there was only one axle. The cylinder configuration remained unchanged. The locomotive continued to serve the purpose that the first version had already served. Even after 1923, it remained in service with the LNER as the X1 class, where its braking system was adapted to the standards of the LNER. The last mechanical engineer A.C. Stamer used the machine until his retirement in 1933, after which it was retired. It was soon brought to the National Railway Museum in York and can still be seen there today.

Variantfirst locomotivesecond locomotiverebuilt 1892rebuilt 1902
General
Built1851186918921902
ManufacturerKitson & Co., Thompson & HewitsonGateshead
Axle config2-2-2WT (Jenny Lind) 4-2-2T (Single) 2-2-4T 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length32 ft 8 1/2 in
Wheelbase20 ft 7 in
Service weight82,880 lbs85,456 lbs98,784 lbs
Adhesive weight43,680 lbs
Axle load43,680 lbs
Water capacity1,946 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal5,600 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power300 hp (224 kW)
Optimal speed42 mph
Starting effort4,542 lbf
with start valve5,450 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in67.8 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimplecompound
Cylinderstwo, 11 x 22 intwo, HP: 13 x 20 in
and LP: 18 1/2 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area11 sq ft
Firebox area65 sq ft
Tube heating area701 sq ft
Evaporative heating area766 sq ft
Total heating area766 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Wilson Worsdell
last changed: 06/2022
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