In view of the increased international traffic in the 1990s, the FS also ordered a new multi-purpose locomotive with three-phase technology in 1993, which should be able to be used with various power systems in neighboring countries. These were the Italian 3,000 volt direct current system, the southern French 1,500 volt direct current system and the 15,000 volt alternating current system in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
The locomotives were developed and manufactured by ABB's Italian subsidiary, which became part of Adtranz in 1996. In terms of electronics and propulsion technology, they have some things in common with the Adtranz locomotives built in Germany, which later became the Bombardier TRAXX. As with its German sisters, the four axles were driven by two power converters, but here one axle of both bogies was connected together. The power is provided by double radial motors. There is one pantograph each for direct and alternating current. The power systems with 15,000, 3,000 and 1,500 volts have an hourly output of 5,600, 5,400 and 2,700 kW respectively.
The FS got 20 examples, which are mainly used on the Brenner between Verona and Innsbruck and are the reason why the E.412 is known as the “Brenner locomotive”. The planned operation on the rest of the Austrian network and as far as Germany had to wait until 2006, since there was initially no approval for Austria. The deployment in France was discarded as this would have required further adjustments. Since the locomotives are now assigned to Trenitalia Cargo, they can only be found in front of freight trains. These are mainly the rolling road and container trains.
Eight more pieces were originally to be delivered to Poland and operated as EU43, which ultimately failed due to the financial situation of PKP. They were eventually taken over by the Italian Rail Traction Company and today they are mainly used on the Benner.