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Passenger and Express Electric Locomotives without Carrying Axles[Inhalt]
British Rail class 87
Great Britain | 1973 | 36 produced
87030 “Black Douglas” in Kenton in September 1979 en route to London Euston
87030 “Black Douglas” in Kenton in September 1979 en route to London Euston
Barry Lewis

The Class 87 was developed as a development of the Class 86. The main differences included an increase in output to 5,000 hp, a top speed of 110 mph and a sprung drive. It was mainly used on the West Coast Main Line in front of express trains, but also in front of freight trains. In the 1980s, a more modern multiple control system was retrofitted, which also allowed the use of driving van trailers (control cars).

The class 90 was in turn a direct derivative and was originally intended to be designated class 87/2. After privatization in the 1990s, most of the locomotives went to Virgin Trains, where they were only used to haul express trains. After the decommissioning, which took place in the first decade after the turn of the millennium, many locomotives were sold to Bulgaria

General
Built1973-1975
ManufacturerBREL
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length58 ft 6 in
Wheelbase43 ft 6 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 9 in
Service weight181,440 lbs
Adhesive weight181,440 lbs
Axle load50,175 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system25,000 V 50 Hz
Continuous power4,962 hp (3,700 kW)
Top speed110 mph
Starting effort58,000 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2023
British Rail class 91
Great Britain | 1988 | 31 produced
Virgin Trains East Coast 91117 in Nottinghamshire in April 2017
Virgin Trains East Coast 91117 in Nottinghamshire in April 2017
Martin arrand 1965
General
Built1988-1991
ManufacturerBREL
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 7 3/4 in
Wheelbase45 ft 5 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft
Service weight179,650 lbs
Adhesive weight179,650 lbs
Axle load44,915 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system25,000 V 50 Hz
Hourly power6,300 hp (4,698 kW)
Continuous power6,090 hp (4,541 kW)
Top speed125 mph
Starting effort43,000 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
express
last changed: 09 2023
China Railway SS8
China | 1994 | 245 produced
SS8-0107 in January 2018 in Beijing
SS8-0107 in January 2018 in Beijing
N509FZ

The SS8 is an electric express locomotive that was developed based on the two prototypes of the SS5. Like the SS5, it has four axles and 3,600 kW, and the regular top speed has been increased from 140 to 170 km/h. The power is controlled electronically using a thyristor. On June 24, 1998, the number 0001 set a Chinese speed record of 239.6 km/h (148.9 mph)

The locomotives, which were built in series from 1997, were initially only used on the Jingguang route, which runs from Beijing to Guangzhou. Later, some locomotives were also used on a connection to Hong Kong, where they were initially replaced by type DF4 diesel locomotives due to feared damage to the catenary. Only after the pantographs had been adjusted with the help of the Kowloon–Canton Railway, the SS8 could be used again on this connection.

General
Built1994-2001
ManufacturerZhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length57 ft 5 5/8 in
Service weight194,007 lbs
Adhesive weight194,007 lbs
Axle load48,502 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system25,000 V 50 Hz
Continuous power4,828 hp (3,600 kW)
Top speed106 mph
Starting effort47,210 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 12/2023
China Railway SS9
China | 1998 | 214 produced
SS9-0203 in June 2018 in Beijing
SS9-0203 in June 2018 in Beijing
N509FZ
General
Built1998-2006
ManufacturerZhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works
Axle configC-C 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length72 ft 10 5/8 in
Service weight277,782 lbs
Adhesive weight277,782 lbs
Axle load47,399 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system25,000 V 50 Hz
Hourly power7,242 hp (5,400 kW)
Continuous power6,437 hp (4,800 kW)
Top speed106 mph
Starting effort64,295 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 09 2023
German Federal Railway E 10
later classes 110, 112, 113 and 115
Germany | 1956 | 416 produced
110 476 in August 1991 in Appenweiler
110 476 in August 1991 in Appenweiler
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

In the beginning, the program of the standard electric locomotives only provided for a four-axle universal locomotive with a top speed of 125 km/h in addition to the six-axle freight locomotive. However, since it soon became apparent that this could not meet all the requirements, the development was divided into the E 10 express locomotive and the E 40 freight locomotive. The industry was given a free hand during development and only the performances to be achieved were specified. The result was four pre-production machines from different manufacturers. After the subsequent delivery of a fifth engine, testing of the locomotives designated E 100 under everyday conditions began in 1952.

Technically and externally, the E 10 was almost identical to the E 40, however, due to the speed of 150 km/h, it was fitted with a dynamic brake and motors that were temporarily able to withstand higher loads. This made it possible to call up up to 6,000 kW for a short time if required. The Gummiringfederantrieb (“rubber ring spring drive”) by SSW proved to be the best form of power transmission in the test locomotives, and so it was installed in the production machines and later also in almost all other standard electric locomotives. A follow-up control was used to switch the 28 notches, in the last series a load switch with thyristor. Series production started in 1956 and comprised 379 examples of the 150 km/h version, also known as the E 101-3. For a long time they were the flagship for express trains on the DB, even after the introduction of the 103.

In 1962, six locomotives of the current production were equipped with new bogies for 160 km/h, which were to be used in front of the Rheingold. Because they got a 1 in front of the serial number, they became known as E 1012. A further six engines were given a more streamlined body, which led to the nickname “crease” due to the distinctive crease in the front sides. The first six examples were later put back on the original bogies, as they still had the old car body. The normal version also received the crease from the E 10 288. Another 20 examples of the E 1012 were given a modified variant of the original bogies, which could also be approved for 160 km/h.

From 1968 the conventional E 10 were listed as class 110 and the E 1012 as class 112. The last 20 E 1012 were reclassified as class 113 in 1988 because they had different bogies. In 1991, the remaining 112 became the 113 in order to be able to classify the class 212 locomotives that had been added by the GDR Reichsbahn as 112 according to the all-German class scheme. After 2005, some 110 and 113 were handed over to DB AutoZug, forming the class 115 for better differentiation.

After many years under heavy loads, it was eventually necessary to reduce the speed to 140 and sometimes even 120 km/h. At DB AG, the locomotives increasingly came to DB Regio and faced competition from the class 143, which was more modern and all engines had the capability for push-pull-trains. From 2001 the gradual decommissioning of the first series began, but the newer ones were still not dispensable despite their increasing age. In 2014, a locomotive built in 1957 was the oldest one on the railway. They almost completely disappeared from active line service that year. In 2020, the last two locomotives of the class 115 were decommissioned after they had previously only been used for special operations. A total of 20 examples were received, some of which remain operational.

General
Built1956-1969
Manufacturermechanical part: Krupp, Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, electrical part: SSW, BBC, AEG
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 11 1/4 in
Wheelbase37 ft 0 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 1 7/8 in
Service weight187,393 lbs
Adhesive weight187,393 lbs
Axle load46,848 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz
Hourly power4,962 hp (3,700 kW)
Continuous power4,854 hp (3,620 kW)
Top speed93 mph
Starting effort61,822 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
express
passenger
last changed: 02/2022
German Federal Railway E 41
later class 141
Germany | 1956 | 451 produced
141 201 with Silberling cars in July 1989 in Braunschweig
141 201 with Silberling cars in July 1989 in Braunschweig
Roger Wollstadt

The E 41 was developed as a standard locomotive for local traffic and passenger traffic on branch lines. The aim of the development was to achieve an axle load of 15 tonnes despite a maximum speed of 120 km/h. For this purpose, a significantly simplified electrical system was installed, which significantly reduced the power compared to the sister locomotives. However, multiple controls were installed throughout in order to be able to implement push-pull train operation on a large scale.

The traction motors were derived from those of the ET 30 railcars. In contrast to the high-voltage tap changer of the other standard electric locomotives, the E 41 was given a low-voltage tap changer that was cheaper to implement. While with the other locomotives a notch could be preselected and engaged automatically by the tap changer, the 28 notches on the E 41 could only be addressed by up and down control. During development, no attention was paid to the fact that this type of tab changer produces arcs with high amperage. The resulting noise earned the locomotives the nickname “firecracker”. With this equipment, the E 41 only briefly produced 3,700 kW, which was the hourly output of the E 10 and E 40. The hourly output of the E 41 was significantly lower at 2,400 kW. Although the achieved axle load of 16.6 tonnes was higher than originally planned, it did not significantly limit the area of application.

A total of 451 locomotives were manufactured up to 1971, which have been known as the class 141 since 1968. They wore a variety of different paint finishes, some of which indicated their use as an S-Bahn. As early as the late 1980s, there were plans to reduce the stock, since more and more powerful electric locomotives were either retrofitted for use in push-pull trains or were delivered directly. Thanks to the introduction of regular-interval timetables, however, there was an increased demand for push-pull locomotives, so that most of the units stayed longer in service. In the 1990s they faced competition from the large number of class 143 locomotives that came to West Germany from the former GDR Reichsbahn. Around the turn of the millennium, the stock of the series fell sharply, so that by 2005 it had almost disappeared.

Variant141 001 to 226141 227 to 451
General
Built1956-1971
Manufacturermechanical part: Krupp, Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, electrical part: SSW, BBC, AEG
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length51 ft 2 15/16 in
Wheelbase37 ft 0 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 1 7/8 in
Service weight146,387 lbs159,835 lbs
Adhesive weight146,387 lbs159,835 lbs
Axle load36,597 lbs39,904 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz
Hourly power3,218 hp (2,400 kW)
Continuous power3,098 hp (2,310 kW)
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort48,559 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 02/2022
German Federal Railway class 103
Germany | 1965 | 145 produced
103 224-2 in the German Steam Locomotive Museum Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg
103 224-2 in the German Steam Locomotive Museum Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg
Jürgen Heegmann

As early as the 1950s, the Bundesbahn was considering operating express trains with speeds of more than 160 km/h. Initially, a derivative of the E 10 standard locomotive or the pre-war E 19 locomotive was under discussion as locomotives for such trains. Finally, there was an invitation to tender for a six-axle locomotive with an output of at least 5,000 kW, which should be able to pull express trains at up to 200 km/h and heavy express trains at 160 km/h.

Henschel was awarded the contract and in 1965 delivered four pre-series machines as the E 03, which had already demonstrated their performance during the International Transport Exhibition. Despite many defects due to immature technology, they showed for the first time that scheduled express trains are possible at 200 km/h. Before the transition to series production, the requirements were further increased, so that 480 tonnes had to be towed at 200 km/h and 800 tonnes at 160 km/h. In 1970, series production of a total of 145 examples of the DB flagship, now known as the class 1031, began.

With a continuous output of 7,440 kW, they were the most powerful one-piece locomotives in the world and remain the most powerful locomotives built in Germany to this day. For a short time it was possible to call up an output of 10,400 kW or even 12,000 kW by switching the transformer, which is far above the output of today's three-phase locomotives. However, this was soon limited to 9,000 kW in favor of the service life of the components. At 9,800 kW, the short-term maximum output of the electric brakes on the 103 is also significantly higher than that of modern locomotives.

To facilitate maintenance, the locomotive body was divided into segments for the first time, which could be removed individually and thus allowed access to the interior of the engine room. Another innovation was the automatic driving and braking control, which is also used today for trips under LZB. The diamond-shaped pantographs that were initially installed were later replaced by a single-arm design, as they occasionally caused damage to the overhead lines.

For many years, the 103 remained the flagship of the Bundesbahn and served trains such as the Intercity or TEE. The class 120 three-phase locomotive, which was introduced in small numbers in the 1980s, could not compete with it because of its lower output. The first 103s only started to be phased out in 1997, since many locomotives were already very worn out from years of high-strain use. They were thus replaced by the new 101 and ended their regular service in 2003. Today, the last surviving locomotives are occasionally used as brake locomotives, as their high power makes them ideal for this.

Variantpre-production 1030production 1031
General
Built19651970-1974
Manufacturermechanical part: Henschel, electrical part: Siemensmechanical part: Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, electrical part: AEG, BBC, Siemens
Axle configC-C 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 11 11/16 in66 ft 3 1/4 in
Wheelbase46 ft 3 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 9 3/16 in
Service weight246,917 lbs251,327 lbs
Adhesive weight246,917 lbs251,327 lbs
Axle load41,226 lbs41,888 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz
Hourly power8,609 hp (6,420 kW)10,433 hp (7,780 kW)
Continuous power7,966 hp (5,940 kW)9,977 hp (7,440 kW)
Top speed124 mph
Starting effort70,590 lbf70,140 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
express
passenger
last changed: 02/2022
German Federal Railway class 111
Germany | 1974 | 227 produced
111 150 with a set of double-deck coaches in July 2013 in Solingen
111 150 with a set of double-deck coaches in July 2013 in Solingen
Lars Steffens

When production of the E 10 or class 110 came to an end, there was a further need for similar locomotives. However, one did not want to ignore the technical advances since the 1950s and thus developed a new model using some of the assemblies of the E 10. The result was the class 111, of which a total of 227 were built between 1974 and 1984.

An important point in the development was smooth running at higher speeds, which is why the bogies were newly developed according to the latest findings. However, since the complicated power transmission via quill, as in the class 103, only paid off at higher speeds, the rubber ring spring drive was retained and the tried-and-tested traction motors of the class 110 were retained. The 111 was the first locomotive to receive the new DB standard driver's cab, which was developed from an ergonomic point of view and is still used today in a further developed form in new vehicles. With a top speed of initially 150 and from 1980 160 km/h, they were used almost exclusively in front of passenger trains. The trains pulled ranged from Intercity trains (sometimes double-headed) to S-Bahn trains. For the latter, a larger number received a different color scheme ex works and a push-pull train control, which was later retrofitted to others.

At the time of the DB AG, the 111 was increasingly used for regional trains, where, however, it was still a frequently seen sight together with double-deck coaches well after the turn of the millennium. After the widespread introduction of locomotives such as the class 146, there were fewer and fewer possible uses, which is why decommissioning began in 2013.

General
Built1974-1984
Manufacturermechanical part: Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, electrical part: AEG, BBC, Siemens
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 11 7/16 in
Wheelbase37 ft 0 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 1 7/8 in
Service weight182,983 lbs
Adhesive weight182,983 lbs
Axle load45,856 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz
Hourly power4,962 hp (3,700 kW)
Continuous power4,854 hp (3,620 kW)
Top speed99 mph
Starting effort61,598 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 02/2022
German Federal Railway class 181 and originally E 310
Germany | 1966 | 29 produced
181 206 in April 2010 in the DB Museum Koblenz-Lützel
181 206 in April 2010 in the DB Museum Koblenz-Lützel
Urmelbeauftragter

For cross-border traffic to France and Luxembourg, the Bundesbahn required electric locomotives that, in addition to the German power system with 15 kV and 16 2/3 Hz, are also suitable for the northern French system with 25 kV and 50 Hz. As early as 1960, three examples of the E 320 were built, which only reached 120 km/h with nose-suspended motors and were in use as the class 182 until the early 1980s. This was followed in 1965 by five E 410s with a rubber ring spring cardan drive, which reached a top speed of 150 km/h. These were additionally designed to operate under 1.5 or 3 kV DC, as used in Belgium, the Netherlands and parts of France. Load control using thyristors and mixed current motors were required for use with direct and alternating current. These locomotives were also used as class 184 until after the turn of the millennium.

Four prototypes of the E 310 finally followed in 1966, which were only suitable for the two AC systems and were therefore technically less complex. Nevertheless, the thyristor control, mixed current motors and the same drive were still used. Two locomotives had an electric resistance brake and were later classified as class 1810, while the other two had regenerative braking and were classed as class 1811.

From 1975, the increased demand for multi-system locomotives led to the procurement of 25 improved production locomtotives as the class 1812. These were now 160 km/h fast and did not differ in the drive technology from the prototypes, but there were improvements in the control technology. As with all previous locomotives, the locomotive body was designed relatively flat, since the overhead line in France is lower than in Germany.

Together with the prototypes and predecessors, the production locomotives were mainly used in front of passenger trains, but often also in front of freight trains. On the French side, they usually ran to Metz or Strasbourg, and they were also used in front of trains to Luxembourg. Depending on demand and capacity, they also ran on domestic German routes. With the introduction of high-speed trains between Germany and France, the locomotives gradually lost their area of responsibility for high-value passenger trains. After the four prototypes had been retired by 2003, the number of 1812 in use dropped significantly from around 2010 until the last example was retired in 2018.

VariantE 310, 1810, 18111812
General
Built19661974-1975
Manufacturermechanical part: Krupp, electrical part: AEG
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length55 ft 7 5/16 in58 ft 10 5/16 in
Service weight185,188 lbs
Adhesive weight185,188 lbs
Axle load46,297 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC/DCelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz, 25,000 V 50 Hz, 1,500 V, 3,000 V15.000 V 16⅔ Hz, 25,000 V 50 Hz
Continuous power4,345 hp (3,240 kW)4,425 hp (3,300 kW)
Top speed93 mph99 mph
Starting effort61,822 lbf62,272 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
multi-system
last changed: 02/2022
German Reichsbahn class 212
DB AG classes 112 and 114
Germany | 1990 | 131 produced
112 173 in November 2003 with an InterRegio in Berlin Ostbahnhof
112 173 in November 2003 with an InterRegio in Berlin Ostbahnhof
Yerodin

For the lines in the former GDR, which were upgraded to 160 km/h from 1991, the Reichsbahn and Bundesbahn jointly procured new passenger locomotives from LEW Hennigsdorf, which soon belonged to AEG again. Since the class 243 was designed for 160 km/h, the new locomotive could be derived from this with not much effort. It was initially used mostly in InterRegio service and in 1994 it was redesignated as class 112. The 1120 without LZB all came to DB Regio in 2000, as the 1121 with LZB were all handed over from DB Fernverkehr to DB Regio in 2004.

General
Built1990-1994
ManufacturerLEW Hennigsdorf, AEG
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 7 1/8 in
Wheelbase38 ft 4 5/8 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 9 15/16 in
Service weight181,881 lbs
Adhesive weight181,881 lbs
Axle load45,415 lbs
Power
Power sourceelectric - AC
Electric system15.000 V 16⅔ Hz
Hourly power5,659 hp (4,220 kW)
Continuous power5,364 hp (4,000 kW)
Top speed99 mph
Starting effort50,807 lbf
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
electric locomotive
passenger
last changed: 02/2023
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