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Tender Locomotive 0-4-2 “Olomana”[Inhalt]
UIC Classiification B1
LB&SCR class B1 “Gladstone”
LB&SCR class B1 “Gladstone”
Barry Marsh

The wheel arrangement 0-4-2 refers to a steam locomotive with two coupled axles and one trailing axle. The name “Olomana” used in North America came from a small narrow-gauge tank locomotive in Hawaii that Baldwin built in 1883. In different countries, this wheel arrangement is referred to as follows:

OlomanaUICB1Whyte0-4-2Switzerland2/3France021Turkey23

The 0-4-2 was developed parallel to the 2-4-0. Here, too, the primary concern was to obtain a four-coupled locomotive with an additional carrying axle for better guidance on the track. Although the trailing axle improved the guidance, it was not as good as with a leading axle. However, the running characteristics were still convincing, especially with internal cylinders that did not protrude far beyond the first coupled axle. There was also the advantage that deep fireboxes could be accommodated without any problems.

Stephenson 0-4-2 of 1834
Stephenson 0-4-2 of 1834

The first known locomotives with this wheel arrangement date from 1834 and were built by Robert Stephenson & Co. for hauling freight trains on the Stanhope and Tyne Railway. The first locomotive to be built entirely in Germany, the “Saxonia” of the Leipzig-Dresden railway from 1838, was also a 0-4-2. In Austria, the “Minotaur” and “Ajax” imported from England in 1841 joined them.

In Great Britain in particular, this design became popular in the period that followed and was mainly used for goods trains. Thus the 1838 Liverpool & Manchester Railway's “Lion” could already pull 200 tons, but was also capable of speeds of up to 45 mph or 72 km/h. Over time, models with larger wheels emerged, which were used equally in front of goods and passenger trains.

While locomotives with a 0-4-2 wheel arrangement soon disappeared from other countries, they were widespread in Great Britain until the 1860s. Soon they were mainly only designed as small tank locomotives. A few British railway companies were the exception in that they continued to procure tender locomotives with this wheel arrangement in the decades that followed. In addition to the Caledonian, the GS&WR and the LSWR, it was the LB&SCR that put B1 class express locomotives into service until 1891.

Galician Carl Ludwig Railway series I
Imperial-Royal State Railways class 11
Austria-Hungary | 1872 | 12 produced
No. 123 “Balta” on a works photo of Maschinenfabrik Esslingen
No. 123 “Balta” on a works photo of Maschinenfabrik Esslingen

After the ten express locomotives with a 2-4-0 wheel arrangement, the CLB ordered another series of twelve express locomotives in Esslingen. They date from the time when the locomotives were given names by the CLB and so they were all given the name of a town that is in what is now Poland or the Ukraine. Later the new locos were called Series I, while the older ones became Series II.

The third locomotive, called “Dnjepr”, was shown at the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873 and apparently caused a stir because of its good looks and the large coupled wheels. Compared to the older locomotives, the driving wheels were significantly larger and the running axle, also fixed, was located under the driver's cab. Although the firebox now had a support, it was restricted in width by the large coupled wheels. Problems with this axle arrangement are also reported, which resulted in derailments due to icing in the area of the water cranes in winter. In addition, at higher speeds it was not an advantage for smooth running that the large coupled wheels were used instead of a leading axle

When they were nationalized in 1892, they were given the kkStB numbers 11.11 to 11.22. This resulted in the class 11 from 1905, but at that time only the 11.18 “Kherson” was left. It was in use until 1907, the remaining engines had already been retired between 1896 and 1902.

General
Built1872-1873
ManufacturerEsslingen
Axle config0-4-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase13 ft 5 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 5 13/16 in
Empty weight54,013 lbs
Service weight70,548 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power362 hp (270 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Starting effort7,989 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter74.6 in
Boiler pressure116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 9/16 x 24 7/8 in
Boiler
Grate area16 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,052.9 sq ft
Total heating area1,052.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Leipzig-Dresden Railway “Saxonia”
Germany | 1838 | only one produced
The replica in April 2000 in Dresden-Altstadt
The replica in April 2000 in Dresden-Altstadt
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

The “Saxonia” was the first functioning steam locomotive to be manufactured entirely in Germany. Since no one had any experience in building such a machine, one leaned on the “Comet” delivered from England. Construction began in 1937 in the newly founded engineering institute in Übigau near Dresden under the direction of Johann Andreas Schubert.

The two coupled axles with large wheels were retained, but a trailing axle was also added to improve handling. Although the trailing axle had been removed in 1840, it was reinstalled in 1842 after an accident in France and also retrofitted to the English prototypes, since from this point on the operation of two-axle locomotives was no longer permitted.

As with most early steam locomotives, inside cylinders were used, but also an inner frame. The boiler barrel and firebox were paneled with wood and the latter protruded far beyond the barrel and had a dome-shaped ceiling. The steam dome was also very tall and had a hemispherical ceiling.

Although this locomotive was intended for the inaugural run of the Leipzig-Dresden railway on April 7, 1839, it is reported that there were protests or sabotage on the part of the English locomotive builders, which is why the opening train was pulled by two English locomotives and the “Saxonia” only ran behind. Nevertheless, the locomotive continued to be in service, the end of which is not exactly documented. The locomotive was probably used until the 1850s.

In 1985, the GDR decided to create a replica of the engine that was true to the original for the 150th anniversary of the line between Leipzig and Dresden. One had to turn to the few surviving blueprints or contemporary literature, but tried to replicate the model as well as possible. However, since some of the original manufacturing methods were no longer familiar or modern safety regulations had to be observed, the original design was deviated from in many places. So the frame of the tender was clad in wood, as the original construction method could no longer be reproduced exactly.

After the jubilee run, the engine was kept operational and demonstrated its capabilities at speeds of up to 70 km/h. Today it is owned by the DB Museum Nuremberg, but is on display in the Dresden Transport Museum. It is no longer operational as the boiler expired in 2011 and has not been repaired since then.

General
Built1838
ManufacturerÜbigau
Axle config0-4-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length28 ft 7 11/16 in
Wheelbase10 ft 0 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 0 in
Service weight22,046 lbs
Adhesive weight17,637 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power54 hp (40 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort1,791 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter55.7 in
Boiler pressure61 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 x 16 in
Boiler
Grate area6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area307.8 sq ft
Total heating area307.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
prototype
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Mecklenburg Railway Company “Wodan” and “Thor”
Germany | 1866
“Wodan” on a works photo
“Wodan” on a works photo
General
Built1866, 1869
ManufacturerEgestorff
Axle config0-4-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length44 ft 11 5/8 in
Wheelbase13 ft 0 15/16 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 0 15/16 in
Empty weight55,997 lbs
Service weight64,375 lbs
Adhesive weight54,454 lbs
Axle load27,227 lbs
Water capacity2,087 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power268 hp (200 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Starting effort10,800 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57.3 in
Boiler pressure119 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area16.4 sq ft
Firebox area68.7 sq ft
Tube heating area820.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area889.1 sq ft
Total heating area889.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 08 2023
Prussian G 2
Germany | 1888 | 45 produced
G 2 formerly Berlin-Hamburg Railway Company
G 2 formerly Berlin-Hamburg Railway Company
Die Lokomotive, October 1915

The Prussian State Railways designated various freight locomotives with 0-4-2 wheel arrangement as G 2, which had been procured by their predecessor railways. Some of them, also designated as G 2, were actually assigned to the G 3 and had the wheel arrangement 0-6-0, but the assignment of the generic designations was partly in the hands of the regional administrations. The first locomotives of this type were procured from 1888 by the Schleswig-Holstein Marsh Railway and were based on an older type from 1866. Due to the arrangement of the chassis, the middle axle was driven and the front axle was coupled, which due to the constellation of the driving and coupling rods earned them the designation “scissor locomotive”.

With a wheel diameter of more than 1,500 mm, the engines were faster than conventional freight locomotives, which is why they were sometimes used in front of passenger trains. The smaller wheels of the trailing axle resulted in the advantage that the firebox had enough space and the driver's cab could be made more spacious. In addition, the staff was able to enjoy smoother running because they were a little away from the driving axles

After the Marsh Railway was taken over by the state railways, the plans for a standard design were drawn up from these locomotives, which was subsequently ordered by various directorates in Prussia. A disadvantage of the trailing axle, which was moved far to the rear, was that it now carried a weight of 15 tonnes, while the coupled axles together only carried 22 tonnes.

Production was discontinued after a total of 45 engines, as these were soon no longer sufficient for freight trains. Since the locomotives, as already mentioned, were also used to pull passenger trains, some of them became P 2 or P 3 when the designations were standardized in 1905. Other locomotives were designated G 2, which actually would have been G 3s. At the Reichsbahn, the engines were no longer given new numbers, since all of them had already been retired by 1923.

VariantBerlin-Hamburgstandard variant
General
Built1888-1901
ManufacturerBorsig
Axle config0-4-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length46 ft 7 1/2 in
Wheelbase15 ft 5 7/16 in14 ft 8 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 6 3/4 in6 ft 4 3/4 in
Empty weight71,871 lbs74,075 lbs
Service weight79,366 lbs82,012 lbs
Adhesive weight66,359 lbs48,943 lbs
Total weight130,954 lbs
Axle load33,180 lbs33,069 lbs
Water capacity2,642 us gal2,774 us gal
Fuel capacity11,023 lbs (coal)8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power469 hp (350 kW)
Optimal speed21 mph19 mph
Top speed28 mph40 mph
Starting effort14,346 lbf15,356 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter59.7 in62.2 in
Boiler pressure145 psi174 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 intwo, 16 9/16 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area20.1 sq ft
Firebox area73.2 sq ft
Tube heating area1,038 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,111.2 sq ft
Total heating area1,111.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 01/2022
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