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Tender Locomotives 4-2-0 “Jervis”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2'A
Utica & Schenectady Railroad
Utica & Schenectady Railroad's „Pioneer”

The wheel arrangement 4-2-0 designates a steam locomotive in which there is a leading, two-axle bogie and a driving axle. It must be distinguished from the Crampton type with fixed carrying axles, i.e. the UIC wheel arrangement 2A or 3A instead of 2'A. In different countries, this wheel arrangement is referred to as follows:

JervisUIC2'AWhyte4-2-0Switzerland1/3France210Turkey13

KFNB “Ganymed” with firebox overhanging to the rear
KFNB “Ganymed” with firebox overhanging to the rear

In the early days of the railway, a large proportion of the locomotives had a 2-2-0 wheel arrangement, which satisfied the traction requirements of the time. While the tracks in England were laid carefully and the terrain was often cut or filled up to compensate for differences in height, in North America the tracks were simply laid onto the existing ground level for reasons of cost. This led to frequent changes to the gradient of the route, for which the existing locomotives had too rigid an undercarriage.

The solution was to replace the carrying axle with a movable bogie that could adapt to the inclines and curves. The first locomotive with this arrangement was the “Brother Jonathan”, which John B. Jervis had developed for the Mohawk & Hudson. This also led to the name “Jervis” used in North America for this type of locomotive. One of the two variants of this wheel arrangement had the driving axle behind the firebox and was mainly built by Baldwin. It was characterized by a very smooth running, but had a low adhesive weight, since more weight was on the bogie. Norris' preferred variant had the firebox located behind the driving axle, which increased the load on the driving axle but resulted in less smooth running.

It was in the USA in particular, where this design was created, that it gained the greatest popularity and was built in large numbers from the 1830s to the 1850s. Many locomotives with the wheel arrangement 0-4-0 were even subsequently converted to 4-2-0, since the running behavior was more important than the adhesive weight at the time. They were later replaced by engines with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement, since a second coupled axle had become necessary. Some locomotives with a 4-2-0 wheel arrangement were also used in Europe, but disappeared again in the 1840s. In Great Britain they were soon replaced by similar locomotives with three fixed axles, from which the Crampton type developed.

Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway “Adonis” to “Ganymed”
Austria-Hungary | 1846 | 6 produced
“Ganymed”
“Ganymed”

In 1846, the KFNB had six 4-2-0 machines manufactured by Günther in Wiener Neustadt, which were basically similar to the Norris locomotives from the USA. They were lighter than other machines previously made by European manufacturers. They were given the names “Adonis”, “Jason”, “Deucalion”, “Phaeton”, “Endymion” and “Ganymed”.

The “Jason” fell victim to a boiler explosion in 1848. The technical data given refer to the state after the boilers had been replaced on the other five locomotives between 1853 and 1865. After the “Adonis” had been retired in 1862, all others were retired in 1866.

General
Built1846
ManufacturerWiener Neustadt
Axle config4-2-0 (Jervis) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco22 ft 8 1/4 in
Wheelbase10 ft 10 15/16 in
Service weight38,801 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power134 hp (100 kW)
Optimal speed12 mph
Starting effort7,402 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.8 in
Boiler pressure94 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 1/2 x 21 3/4 in
Boiler
Firebox area74.3 sq ft
Tube heating area710.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area784.7 sq ft
Total heating area784.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 07/2023
Morris & Essex “Orange”
United States | 1837 | only one produced
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, October 1893

The inventor Seth Boyden, who had already made a name for himself in the field of leather and metalworking, also got into locomotive construction in 1837. The first of the two locomotives he built was the Orange, destined for the Morris & Essex Railroad. It was the first locomotive ever to be built in the state of New Jersey.

It had a 4-2-0 wheel arrangement with a leading bogie and a firebox in front of the driving axle. Boyden designed the very simple controls with a special reversing device. For the first time in history, the cylinders were mounted directly on the outside of the frame below the smoke box, which later became standard on almost all American steam locomotives. They had an exceptionally long stroke, almost three times the diameter.

The engine was first tested on August 1, 1837 and went into commercial operation on September 23. Without counterweights, the running smoothness probably left a lot to be desired due to the large masses going back and forth. Nevertheless, the engine was considered a success and was in use for a number of years.

General
Built1837
ManufacturerSeth Boyden
Axle config4-2-0 (Jervis) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight14,000 lbs
Fuel capacitywood
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power20 hp (15 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.5 in
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 8 1/4 x 26 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 10/2022
Imperial-Royal Northern State Railway “Sedletz” to “Hohenmauth”
State Railway Company No. 2 to 7
Austria-Hungary | 1842 | 6 produced
“Carolinenthal”
“Carolinenthal”
General
Built1842
ManufacturerWiener Neustadt
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase9 ft 10 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase3 ft 6 1/2 in
Empty weight26,455 lbs
Service weight29,762 lbs
Adhesive weight17,637 lbs
Axle load17,637 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power94 hp (70 kW)
Optimal speed19 mph
Starting effort3,168 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60.2 in
Boiler pressure80 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 12 7/16 x 18 1/8 in
Boiler
Grate area8.6 sq ft
Firebox area45.2 sq ft
Tube heating area455.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area500.5 sq ft
Total heating area500.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 10 2023
Vienna-Raab Railway “Philadelphia”
Austria-Hungary | 1837 | only one produced
Die Lokomotive, July 1917

With the founding of the Vienna-Raaber Eisenbahn, a locomotive was initially required that could be used for the construction of the line and for further tests. Georg Simon Sina von Hodos saw the simply built machines from Norris from the USA as ideal for this and therefore had one of these locomotives bought used. With the outside cylinders, which did not require a cranked axle, it was hoped that maintenance would be easier.

The locomotive arrived in Vienna in April 1838 and was named “Philadelphia” after its origin. Although it was used as planned during the construction work, when the line opened it was too weak to carry passenger trains.

Now that more powerful locomotives had been procured from England, the “Philadelphia” continued to be used for other tasks. In 1853 it came to the Southern State Railway and was retired in 1857.

General
Built1837
ManufacturerWilliam Norris
Axle config4-2-0 (Jervis) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight26,676 lbs
Adhesive weight16,755 lbs
Axle load16,755 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power32 hp (24 kW)
Optimal speed9 mph
Starting effort2,296 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure71 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 10 9/16 x 16 3/8 in
Boiler
Tube heating area376.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2023
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