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Tender Locomotives 4-4-0 “American”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2B and 2'B
Meeting of replicas of Union Pacific No. 119 and Central Pacific “Jupiter” at the Golden Spike National Historic Site in Utah where the gap in the First Transcontinental Railroad was closed in 1869.
Meeting of replicas of Union Pacific No. 119 and Central Pacific “Jupiter” at the Golden Spike National Historic Site in Utah where the gap in the First Transcontinental Railroad was closed in 1869.
Carol M. Highsmith / Library of Congress

The wheel arrangement 4-4-0 designates a steam locomotive with a leading, two-axle bogie and two coupled axles. This design was the standard for almost all types of trains, especially in the USA for several decades of the 19th century. In different countries, this wheel arrangement is referred to as follows:

AmericanUIC2'BWhyte4-4-0Switzerland2/4France220Turkey24

The first locomotive of this type was designed by Henry Roe Campbell in 1836 for the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railway. To do this, he added a second coupled axle behind the firebox for the 4-2-0 or 2'A wheel arrangement. However, the two leading axles were not in a bogie here, which caused problems with the running characteristics. This was reinforced by the fact that the two coupled axles were not yet connected by a compensating lever.

Drawing of the first 4-4-0 locomotive by Campbell from 1836
Drawing of the first 4-4-0 locomotive by Campbell from 1836

The compensating lever was developed by Joseph Harrison Jr. in 1836, which ensured that the two coupled axles were always loaded equally. The Eastwick and Harrison company manufactured the first bogie 4-4-0 locomotive in 1837. This now meant the UIC wheel arrangement 2'B instead of 2B and ensured significantly better driving characteristics.

The 4-4-0 quickly established itself in the USA, since it also showed good running characteristics on the inexpensively laid rails in North America. The second coupled axle provided sufficient tractive force and the four axles in total were able to apply high tractive force on rails with less load-bearing capacity.

In the USA, locomotives with the wheel arrangement were not only newly built, but also locomotives with the wheel arrangements 2-4-0 and 4-2-0 were rebuilt accordingly. In 1872, they accounted for 85 percent of the stock of locomotives there. It is therefore not surprising that this wheel arrangement was already being given the name “American” around this time. Sometimes there is also talk of “Eight-wheeler” or simply “Standard”. The richly decorated representatives of this wheel arrangement also shaped the image of the typical American steam locomotive in western movies.

GWR No. 3717 “City of Truro” which reached a speed of 100 mph or 161 km/h in 1904
GWR No. 3717 “City of Truro” which reached a speed of 100 mph or 161 km/h in 1904
Tony Hisgett

In Great Britain, the wheel arrangement 4-4-0 first spread in tank locomotives, especially on the broad gauge of the GWR and connected railways. The Bogie class of the GWR with a saddle tank started things off in 1849 and was followed in 1855 by the Waverley class as the first tender locomotive. Although the inside cylinders that were common in Great Britain increased the design effort for a leading bogie, the 4-4-0 was also manufactured with inside cylinders from 1871 onwards.

This wheel arrangement was also used in South Africa, especially for tank locomotives. However, there were also small tender locomotives that were used in front of passenger trains on main lines. Most 4-4-0s were used on the Cape Government Railway. An unusual example is the class 1 4-4-0, which was exceptionally small for a mainline passenger loco and also had only small driving wheels. Many tender locomotives with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement could also be found in Australia.

In Germany, Prussia not only had the largest number of locomotives of all, but also the largest number of locomotives with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement. From 1890 to 1913, almost 3,500 locomotives with this wheel arrangement were built there for use in passenger and express trains.

The “Schools class” of the British Southern Railway was only built from 1930 and was the most powerful 4-4-0 in Europe
The “Schools class” of the British Southern Railway was only built from 1930 and was the most powerful 4-4-0 in Europe
Hugh Llewelyn

Basically, it was observed with these locomotives that individual railway companies ordered different types with different wheel diameters at the same time in order to optimize them for the respective areas of application. The New York Central No. 999, which was a specially adapted one-off, was said to have already reached more than 100 mph or 161 km/h by 1893. In Britain, the Great Western Railway's “City of Truro” is believed to have been the first to reach 100 mph in 1904, although this was a production machine with no particular adjustments.

In the USA, the 4-4-0 in use in front of freight trains soon faced competition from the “Mogul” wheel arrangement (2-6-0 or 1'C), which was designed for higher tractive effort. In front of passenger trains, it was replaced by other types around the turn of the century. In particular, these were the “Atlantic” (wheel arrangement 4-4-2 or 2'B1') for the fastest trains and the “Ten-wheeler” (wheel arrangement 4-6-0 or 2'C) for the heavier trains. However, some continued to be used in minor duties until after World War II.

In Europe, where lighter trains were common, many passenger and express locomotives with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement were built at the beginning of the 20th century to take advantage of the increased axle loads. Between 1930 and 1935, the British Southern Railway had a total of 40 V-class locomotives, also known as the “Schools class”, built. With three cylinders, these are considered to be the most powerful locomotives with this wheel arrangement in Europe and were only phased out in the early 1960s.

Egyptian State Railway class 16
Egypt | 1901 | 35 produced
flickr/Historical Railway Images

The Egyptian State Railways switched to express locomotives with a leading bogie in 1901 with the class 16. The first ten machines of this type, which was clearly designed according to British principles, came from Neilson, Reid & Co. from Glasgow. There were also 15 examples from Henschel in Germany and ten from the StEG locomotive factory in Austria, which were virtually identical to the Scottish machines. Typical for locomotives used in Egypt was the driver's cab, which was only closed at the front, with ornaments on the roof.

As was common for most British steam locomotives of the time, the cylinders were in a slightly inclined position within the frame and below the smokebox. Here, for the first time in a production locomotive, the feedwater heater developed by Frederick Harvey Trevithick to save water was used. While the previous tests had been carried out with some voluminous attachments, the heater could now be accommodated in the smokebox. This already paved the way for the smokebox superheater

General
Built1901-1902
ManufacturerNeilson, Reid & Co., Henschel, StEG
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase22 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 3 in
Service weight101,052 lbs
Adhesive weight65,884 lbs
Total weight173,292 lbs
Axle load35,840 lbs
Water capacity3,002 us gal
Fuel capacity12,320 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power600 hp (447 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Starting effort14,100 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter75 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area21.4 sq ft
Firebox area126.6 sq ft
Tube heating area1,108.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,235 sq ft
Total heating area1,235 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 10/2022
Badenian II a
Germany | 1888 | 24 produced
II a on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
II a on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

When the Crampton locomotives used for express trains on the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways were no longer state of the art, a new express locomotive was developed from the class III passenger locomotives.

Special features of the II a were the Belpaire firebox and an outer plate frame. The power was transmitted via Hall cranks to the wheel sets located within the frame. Because the cylinders were located in front of the pivot of the lead bogie, the running smoothness was not entirely convincing. Especially under full load, the overhanging masses of the cylinders generated unpleasant vibrations.

Despite this, the engine performed well and was used on the international trains that traversed the Baden region. The locomotives were able to pull a 220-tonne train with 16 wagons on the flat at up to 84 km/h and thus still reached 60 km/h on a gradient of 0.5 percent. At 1.25 percent, 150 tonnes could still be pulled at 50 km/h.

Another delivery of ten locomotives in 1891 saw the need to lengthen the boiler tubes and increase the diameter of the cylinders to 457 mm. To improve the running characteristics, the wheel base of the bogie was also increased from 1,400 to 2,000 mm.

After the founding of the Reichsbahn, the II a met the same fate as other older Länderbahn locomotives. Of the 24 units built, ten were still included in the renumbering plan as ckass 3673. Eventually all were retired by 1925.

Variant1888 variant1891 variant
General
Built1888-18901891
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length50 ft 5 7/8 in
Wheelbase18 ft 0 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 0 7/8 in
Total wheelbase38 ft 0 11/16 in
Empty weight92,594 lbs
Service weight101,413 lbs103,176 lbs
Adhesive weight61,729 lbs64,375 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs32,187 lbs
Water capacity3,038 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power503 hp (375 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph25 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort11,856 lbf13,085 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73.2 in
Boiler pressure145 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/8 x 24 intwo, 18 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area19.7 sq ft
Firebox area89.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,190.5 sq ft1,217.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,279.8 sq ft1,306.7 sq ft
Total heating area1,279.8 sq ft1,306.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian II c
Germany | 1892 | 35 produced
Die Lokomotive, December 1904

The class II c designated express locomotives which, contrary to usual practice, had been developed based on the English practice. They were the first locomotives in Germany to be certified for a maximum operational speed of 110 km/h. The clearest distinguishing feature was the inside plate frame with wheel housings, which partially covered the 2,100 mm large coupled wheels and started at the level of the very low running board. In addition, the cylinders were on the inside, which was very rare in Germany for two-cylinder steam locomotives.

Due to the long wheelbase of the bogie and the low-lying boiler, the running characteristics were very good, so that the locomotives even ran smoothly at 120 km/h during test drives. The large wheels also helped maintain higher speeds for longer periods, and thus the 110 km/h certification was granted.

The development and production of the first series models took place at Grafenstaden in Alsace, but further vehicles followed from the Karlsruhe Engineering Society and the Saxon Machine Factory Hartmann. A total of 35 pieces were made between 1892 and 1900.

In order to reduce the effort required at high speeds, two modifications were made to the last five machines, as would also be found on later locomotives. One was a wind-cutter cab, i.e. the front wall of the cab was divided vertically in two and both halves were pulled back at a sharp angle in a V-shape. The other adjustment was an aerodynamically clad smokebox door. Instead of being conical like other German express locomotives from the beginning of the century, the tip was pulled down almost to the bottom of the boiler and the fairing formed a transition to the cylinders. Along with these modifications came an increase in boiler pressure from 12 to 13 bar.

Despite their good running characteristics, the tractive power of the locomotives was soon no longer sufficient for lighter express trains, as these could pull a maximum of 260 tons at top speed. In addition, higher demands were now placed on the acceleration of trains, which gradually reduced them to lower services. After the First World War, nine examples came to France and were operated there by the État state railway as class 220.9. In the period that followed, the number of locomotives remaining in Germany decreased, which meant that the planned takeover of the last machines by the Reichsbahn and re-designation to the class 3673 did not occur.

Variantvariant 1892variant 1900
General
Built1892-18991900
ManufacturerGrafenstaden, MBG Karlsruhe, Hartmann
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length55 ft 11 7/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft 5 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 4 3/8 in
Empty weight92,815 lbs94,799 lbs
Service weight100,641 lbs102,868 lbs
Adhesive weight65,257 lbs68,123 lbs
Axle load32,628 lbs34,304 lbs
Water capacity4,095 us gal4,042 us gal
Fuel capacity9,921 lbs (coal)11,023 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power730 hp (544 kW)
Estimated power697 hp (520 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph31 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort13,859 lbf15,014 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter82.7 in
Boiler pressure174 psi188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 1/8 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area22.2 sq ft
Firebox area98.2 sq ft
Tube heating area1,028 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,126.1 sq ft
Total heating area1,126.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian XII
later III
Germany | 1861 | 41 produced
No. 127 with a small steam dome on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
No. 127 with a small steam dome on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

Locomotives with no coupled axles were soon no longer sufficient on the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways either, and so class XII was developed with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement and a remarkably short wheelbase. Certain similarities to Swiss locomotives are not surprising, since the Swiss network was also used in part.

Earlier locomotives often had a 2-2-2 wheel arrangement, but when adding a second coupled axle, a front bogie was chosen instead of two individual carrying axles. In order to be able to continue to use the existing turntables, the overall wheelbase was designed to be as short as possible. Due to the large driving wheels, this was not achieved simply by moving the bogie back; the bogie itself had to be made very short and the distance between the remaining axles kept as short as possible.

Since development was making rapid progress at the time, the engines differed depending on the year of construction. It was noticeable that the steam dome was relatively small in the first batches and significantly larger in the later ones. What they all had in common was that the external leaf springs were noticeable and the deceleration was carried out via spindle brakes on all wheels of the tender. Due to the design of the boiler and the position of the cylinders in front of the bogie, a speed of only 60 km/h was possible despite the large wheels.

At the beginning of the 20th century, this locomotive could be found working in shunting service in Basel
At the beginning of the 20th century, this locomotive could be found working in shunting service in Basel
Locomotive Magazine, April 1903

Despite the inadequacy, the engines of the series designated as type III from 1868 became indispensable, so that from 1869 a reinforced version was procured as III a. From 1881, many of the 41 examples of the XII or III and the III a were converted to the III b with an even more powerful boiler and longer frame. The locomotives that had not been converted were taken out of service at the beginning of the 1890s, and the rest were able to survive for a few more years after the turn of the century.

Variant1861 variant1864 variant
General
Built1861-18631864-1865
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length44 ft 1 7/16 in
Wheelbase14 ft 9 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 4 3/4 in
Total wheelbase33 ft 2 11/16 in
Empty weight56,218 lbs
Service weight63,273 lbs
Adhesive weight35,274 lbs
Axle load17,637 lbs
Water capacity1,498 us gal1,427 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power174 hp (130 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph14 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort6,712 lbf7,671 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure102 psi116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 15/16 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area10.4 sq ft
Firebox area63.1 sq ft
Tube heating area865 sq ft904.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area928.1 sq ft967.4 sq ft
Total heating area928.1 sq ft967.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Bavarian B XI
German Reichsbahn class 367-8
Germany | 1892 | 139 produced
No. 1316
No. 1316

Shortly after the express locomotives of type X were put into service, it was noticed that the power could not be further increased while maintaining the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement. For this reason, a new locomotive was developed that had a bogie that could be moved sideways at the front and could therefore accommodate a larger boiler without exceeding the axle load. The first series consisted of 39 machines, which were delivered by Maffei in 1892 and 1893. They were powered by a simpe two-cylinder engine and could reach a top speed of 90 km/h with a 1,870 mm driver diameter

A second series was produced from 1895, of which a total of 100 machines were manufactured not only by Maffei but also by Krauss. Their biggest difference to the first was that they got a compound engine with two cylinders to achieve better efficiency. In addition, the boiler pressure was increased from 12 to 13 bars. On the flat, the two versions could haul 200 and 270 tonnes, respectively, at 75 km/h. In order to be able to maintain a speed of 50 km/h on gradients of 0.5 percent, the train weight was not allowed to exceed 200 or 260 tonnes.

Despite the early appearance of more powerful and, above all, faster locomotives, a large number of the machines were able to survive until the Reichsbahn era, even if they were rarely used in high-value express train service later on. Eight examples of the first series and 76 of the second series were taken over by the Reichsbahn and given the numbers 36 701 to 708 and 36 751 to 826. The simple locomotives were all retired in 1926 and the compound locomotives by 1931.

VariantNo. 1201-1239No. 1240-1339
General
Built1892-18931895-1900
ManufacturerMaffei, Krauss
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length52 ft 5 1/8 in55 ft 4 13/16 in
Wheelbase21 ft 10 5/8 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 4 3/8 in
Service weight111,113 lbs113,538 lbs
Adhesive weight62,832 lbs65,257 lbs
Total weight190,479 lbs208,337 lbs
Axle load31,526 lbs32,628 lbs
Water capacity3,830 us gal4,755 us gal
Fuel capacity13,228 lbs (coal)14,330 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power603 hp (450 kW)
Optimal speed56 mph33 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort6,913 lbf11,478 lbf
with start valve8,296 lbf13,774 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73.6 in
Boiler pressure174 psi188 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylinderstwo, 16 15/16 x 24 intwo, HP: 17 15/16 x 24 in
and LP: 26 3/8 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area24.1 sq ft24.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,250.8 sq ft1,257.2 sq ft
Total heating area1,250.8 sq ft1,257.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 01/2022
Caledonian class 721 “Dunalastair I to IV”
London, Midland & Scottish class 2P
Great Britain | 1896 | 65 produced
No. 723 Dunalastair I
No. 723 Dunalastair I
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, May 1896

The increasing weight of the express trains in the 1980s and 1990s also presented the Caledonian Railway with the problem that inefficient double-headings had to be used more and more frequently. John F. McIntosh, who was chief engineer from 1895, increased the performance of the 4-4-0 locomotives to the maximum that was possible within the limits of physics and engineering. Key to this was the use of a larger boiler that just fit into the gauge of the Scottish routes and was operated at 160psi. The resulting locomotive was named the Dunalastair class after a well-known Scottish clan. It also formed the basis for Belgian tender locomotives with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement and tank locomotives with a 4-4-2T wheel arrangement, of which 424 were built.

In 1896 15 examples of the actual Class 721 were built, numbered 721 to 735 and later named Dunalastair I. This was followed in 1897 by the numbers 766 to 780 as Dunalastair II and in 1899/1900 by 887 to 902 as Dunalastair III. The latter two series received four-axle tenders in order to be able to cope better with the longer distances in the Scottish expanses. Records of the Dunalastair III show a 32 mile run with a 250 ton ton at an average speed of 58 mph. Between 1904 and 1910, another 19 units followed as Dunalastair IV. From 1910, a total of 21 engines of classes 139 and 43 were built, which had a superheater ex works and, depending on the author, are either also classified in the Dunalastair class or regarded as a separate class.

No. 769 Dunalastair II
No. 769 Dunalastair II
Locomotive Magazine, June 1898

During development, the boiler pressure was increased first to 175 and then 180 psi. Beginning in 1914, when some Series II, III and IV locomotives were retrofitted with superheaters, the boiler pressure was lowered back to 170 psi and larger cylinders were installed. At the LMS they were numbered between 14311 and 14439. While all Dunalastairs in the original version were retired by 1935, the superheated engines survived longer. Of a total of four engines that were taken over by British Railways, the last Dunalastair IV survived until 1958.

VariantDunalastair IDunalastair IIDunalastair IIIDunalastair IV
General
Built189618971899-19001904-1910
ManufacturerSt. Rollox
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase23 ft 1 in23 ft 7 in23 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft9 ft 6 in9 ft 9 in
Service weight105,213 lbs118,329 lbs115,809 lbs121,801 lbs
Adhesive weight70,001 lbs77,616 lbs79,968 lbs80,248 lbs
Total weight206,013 lbs205,859 lbs216,608 lbs240,465 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs40,124 lbs41,226 lbs41,412 lbs
Water capacity4,203 us gal4,954 us gal4,287 us gal
Fuel capacity8,960 lbs (coal)10,080 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power700 hp (522 kW)750 hp (559 kW)820 hp (611 kW)
Optimal speed30 mph27 mph28 mph
Starting effort15,099 lbf17,900 lbf18,411 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78 in
Boiler pressure160 psi175 psi180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 1/4 x 26 intwo, 19 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area20.6 sq ft23 sq ft21 sq ft
Firebox area118.8 sq ft118.7 sq ft138 sq ft145 sq ft
Tube heating area1,284.2 sq ft1,381.3 sq ft1,462 sq ft1,470 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,403 sq ft1,500 sq ft1,600 sq ft1,615 sq ft
Total heating area1,403 sq ft1,500 sq ft1,600 sq ft1,615 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
John Farquharson McIntosh
last changed: 02/2022
Caledonian classes 113 and 72 “Dunalastair V”
London, Midland & Scottish class 3P
Great Britain | 1916 | 48 produced
No. 14493 of the LMS in August 1948 at Inverness
No. 14493 of the LMS in August 1948 at Inverness
Ben Brooksbank

In 1916, William Pickersgill had 16 class 72 4-4-0 express locomotives built. From 1920, 32 more Class 113s followed, which had a slightly smaller boiler and slightly larger cylinders. Technically, they could be considered the successors to McIntosh's Dunalastair range, which is why they were unofficially called “Dunalastair V”. Like their predecessors, they had the cylinders and valve gear on the inside of the frame, but a superheater straight from the factory. They reportedly performed well, which increased their lifespans. So all members of the class came to the LMS in 1923 and to the British Railways in 1948. One was scrapped in 1953 after an accident and the rest were only retired between 1959 and 1962.

Variant11372
General
Built19161920-1922
ManufacturerSt. Rollox, Armstrong Whitworth, North British
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 9 in
Service weight137,200 lbs
Adhesive weight89,040 lbs
Total weight241,360 lbs229,633 lbs
Axle load44,575 lbs
Water capacity5,044 us gal
Fuel capacity14,784 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,050 hp (783 kW)1,000 hp (746 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph30 mph
Starting effort20,400 lbf21,433 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 26 intwo, 20 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area20 sq ft20.7 sq ft
Firebox area145 sq ft144 sq ft
Tube heating area1,220 sq ft1,185 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,365 sq ft1,329 sq ft
Superheater area295 sq ft200 sq ft
Total heating area1,660 sq ft1,529 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
William Pickersgill
last changed: 08/2023
Cambrian Railways class 61
Great Britain | 1893 | 21 produced
Locomotive Magazine, April 1896

William Aston, who had been Cambrian's chief engineer since 1882, had already revised the six Beaconsfield class engines to cope with the increased train weights and tighter schedules. It was all about the express trains that transported holidaymakers to the tourist areas of Wales. From 1893, class 61 locomotives were procured to meet the increased requirements in this area, which represented an extension of the Beaconsfield class.

Compared to their predecessors, the locos received larger cylinders, larger drivers and a new boiler with 20 psi higher pressure and a larger firebox with larger grate. In the years 1893 to 1895, 16 pieces were made by Sharp, Stewart & Co., which received the numbers 61 to 72 and 81 to 84. Five more followed in 1897 by Robert Stephenson & Co., numbered 32, 47, 11, 85 and 86. Number 19 was special as it was not manufactured until 1901 in the Cambrian Railway's own workshops in Oswestry.

General
Built1893-1895, 1897, 1901
ManufacturerSharp, Stewart & Co., Robert Stephenson & Co., Owestry
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase20 ft 3 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 3 in
Service weight90,160 lbs
Adhesive weight61,040 lbs
Total weight157,360 lbs
Axle load33,600 lbs
Water capacity3,002 us gal
Fuel capacity10,080 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power575 hp (429 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph
Starting effort14,688 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area17 sq ft
Firebox area99.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,057 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,156.5 sq ft
Total heating area1,156.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
William Aston
last changed: 10/2022
Canadian Pacific No. 283
Canada | 1883 | only one produced
No. 283 decorated for the funeral train of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald
No. 283 decorated for the funeral train of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald
Library and archivees Canada / C-007127

Number 283 was a 4-4-0 locomotive, of which no class designation is known today. Built in 1883 by the Hinkley Locomotive Works, it had 62-inch diameter coupled wheels. It is said to have been used generally in front of passenger and freight trains.

It is best known for drawing the funeral train of Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald. This was pulled on June 10, 1891 through Ontario from Ottawa to Kingston. The photo shows it decorated for the occasion. The 283 was eventually scrapped in 1897.

General
Built1883
ManufacturerHinkley
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power400 hp (298 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 04/2023
Canadian Pacific No. 371 to 378
Canada | 1886 | 8 produced

The Locomotives numbered 371 through 378 were built in 1886 by the CPR's own Montreal workshops. Their area of application was the transcontinental railroad opened in 1887 on the section to the Pacific coast near Vancouver. Originally they had 69 inch drivers which were later reduced to 62 inches. It was number 374 that brought the first passenger train to Vancouver on May 23, 1887. While the rest of the class was retired between 1915 and 1929, the 374 was rebuilt in 1914 and served until 1945. It was then restored to its original condition, with modern components removed and the locomotive no longer operational. Today, the 374 resides in a pavilion in Vancouver.

General
Built1886
ManufacturerMontreal
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight115,000 lbs
Adhesive weight71,000 lbs
Axle load35,500 lbs
Fuel capacitywood
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power600 hp (447 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph
Starting effort13,671 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure160 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
Francis R.F. Brown
last changed: 07/2023
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