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London & North Western No. 3020 “Cornwall”
Great Britain | 1847 | only one produced
“Cornwall” after the rebuilding of 1858
“Cornwall” after the rebuilding of 1858
Stadtarchiv Maynz / BPSF/9850 A

In an attempt to combine large driving wheels with a low center of gravity, No. 3020 “Cornwall” of the LNWR was one of the most complicated, but unsuccessful designs. Designed by Francis Trevithick, son of the famous Richard Trevithick, it was a 4-2-2 with driving wheels of 8 ft 6 in (2,591 mm) built in 1847. To keep the boiler low, but out of the way of the driving axle, it was placed below this axle.

Original state from 1847 with a low boiler
Original state from 1847 with a low boiler

Even though the driving axle could be held out of the boiler, the trailing axle went through a tube in the firebox, what created some problems when assembling the locomotive. Another problem was the long rigid wheelbase that effected the running characteristics. For these reasons, John Ramsbottom rebuilt it into a conventional 2-2-2 with boiler above the driving axle

Sectional frawing of the original state
Sectional frawing of the original state

Although it was only a single locomotive, the rebuilt “Cornwall” was used successfully in express service. With light trains, it delivered average speeds of 50 mph (80 km/h) and top speeds of up to 70 mph (113 km/h). In the 1870s, it got a semi-open cab.

It remained in regular express service until 1902. After that, it was not retired, but used as an inspection locomotive. For this task, it got a six-wheel carriage whose front part filled the task of a tender, while its rear part was a passenger compartment. When it reached its final retirement in the twenties, it was one of the first locomotives to be preserved on purpose. Today it can be found in the Buckinghamshire Railway Centre.

General
Built1847
ManufacturerCrewe
Axle config2-2-2 (Jenny Lind) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase14 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 10 in
Service weight63,392 lbs
Adhesive weight28,000 lbs
Axle load28,000 lbs
Water capacity2,162 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power200 hp (149 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort8,332 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter102 in
Boiler pressure140 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/4 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area15 sq ft
Firebox area51 sq ft
Tube heating area1,017 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,068 sq ft
Total heating area1,068 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
prototype
Francis Trevithick
John Ramsbottom
last changed: 04/2024
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