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Exotic Types of Steam Locomotives[Inhalt]
French Western Railway Heilmann locomotive
later “La Fusée Electrique” and No. 8001 and 8002
France | 1893 | 3 produced
Ouest No. 8001 in the Scientific American, September 1897
Ouest No. 8001 in the Scientific American, September 1897
Drawing of “La Fusée Electrique” in Cassier's Magazine, April 1894
Drawing of “La Fusée Electrique” in Cassier's Magazine, April 1894
VariantLa Fusée Electrique8001-8002
General
Built18931897
ManufacturerForges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée
Axle configD-D (Angus) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length54 ft 1 5/8 in93 ft 0 1/8 in
Service weight220,462 lbs273,373 lbs
Adhesive weight220,462 lbs273,373 lbs
Axle load27,558 lbs34,172 lbs
Water capacity3,170 us gal
Power
Power sourcesteam-electric
Top speed66 mph
Engine output633 hp (472 kW)794 hp (592 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter47.2 in45.7 in
Boiler pressure188 psi203 psi
Cylinderstwo, HP: 16 3/4 x 11 13/16 in
and LP: 25 9/16 x 11 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area24.2 sq ft36 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,560.8 sq ft1,996.7 sq ft
Total heating area1,560.8 sq ft1,996.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
steam-electric
last changed: 10 2023
Great Western Railway “Thunderer” and “Hurricane”
Great Britain | 1838 | 2 produced
“Hurricane”
“Hurricane”
Locomotive Magazine, April 1901

The first 19 locomotives that Brunel had procured in 1938 were partly adventurous designs to reach high speeds. On the one hand there were the “Snake” and “Viper” locomotives from the Haigh foundry, which were brought to higher speeds with a gearbox with a ratio of 2:3 and had the wheel arrangement 2-2-2. Less conventional were the two Hawthorn locomotives developed by Thomas Elliot Harrison, which used two cars to split the boiler and engine.

The first of these was the “Thunderer”, where the boiler and driver's stand were on a three-axle chassis. The cylinders were housed on another, two-axle chassis together with a gearbox with a ratio of 10:27. Here both axles with six feet wheels were driven. The live steam was routed to the engine chassis and the exhaust steam back to the smoke box via elastic pipes.

“Thunderer”
“Thunderer”
Locomotive Magazine, April 1901

The “Hurricane” got rid of the gearbox by increasing the size of the driven wheels to exactly ten feet. For reasons of space, only one axle was driven, which is why two carrying axles were added and the engine unit was thus given the wheel arrangement 2-2-2. Both “Thunderer” and “Hurricane” were only used until December 1939 and their boilers were then used as stationary steam generators and for a freight locomotive. Thanks to the experience with the locomotives, gearboxes and equally divided locomotives were dispensed with in the future and high speeds were achieved in other ways.

VariantThundererHurricane
General
Built1838
ManufacturerR. & W. Hawthorn & Co.
Axle config0-4-0+6 (Four-coupled) 2-2-2+6 (Jenny Lind) 
Gauge7 ft 0 1/4 in (GWR broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase7 ft15 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft15 ft 9 in
Adhesive weight26,880 lbs13,440 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in120 in
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area17 sq ft
Firebox area108 sq ft
Tube heating area516 sq ft
Evaporative heating area624 sq ft
Total heating area624 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
prototype
split powerplant
Thomas Elliot Harrison
last changed: 01/2022
Pennsylvania class S2
United States | 1944 | only one produced
No. 6200 in March 1944
No. 6200 in March 1944
Mike Robbins

The S2 was the largest steam locomotive ever with direct axle drive from a turbine. Delivered by Baldwin and Westinghouse in 1944, it was used by the PRR primarily in front of important express trains. Because the turbine was located directly between the second and third coupled axle and drove it via gears, there were only small mechanical losses. With an output of 6,900 hp, it was able to sustain over 100 mph, but the steam consumption of the turbine at low speeds was higher than that of conventional steam locomotives. In connection with the complicated maintenance, this initially led to the decommissioning in 1949 and the subsequent scrapping.

General
Built1944
ManufacturerBaldwin, Westinghouse
Axle config6-8-6 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length122 ft 7 1/4 in
Total wheelbase108 ft
Empty weight537,000 lbs
Service weight589,920 lbs
Adhesive weight271,450 lbs
Total weight1,032,100 lbs
Axle load72,300 lbs
Water capacity19,500 us gal
Power
Power sourcesteam turbine
Top speed110 mph
Engine output6,900 hp (5,145 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter68 in
Boiler pressure310 psi
Boiler
Grate area120 sq ft
Firebox area607 sq ft
Tube heating area3,588 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,195 sq ft
Superheater area2,050 sq ft
Total heating area6,245 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
turbine
express
prototype
last changed: 03/2023
Saxon XV HTV
German Reichsbahn class 79
Germany | 1916 | 2 produced
Eisenbahnstiftung Joachim Schmidt

Since the Saxon state railways in the Ore Mountains had steep routes, the increased weight of the trains in the years before the First World War meant that a powerful tank locomotive had to be developed to push or pull freight trains. The result was the XV HTV with an unusual and complex design of the chassis, which was only built twice.

Since people in Saxony were not convinced of the suitability for everyday use of the Gölsdorff design with six coupled axles, a different path was taken in the development. Two three-axle bogies were used, but they were not mounted on bogies, but firmly in the frame. Each inner axle could be shifted sideways by 28 mm, while the outer axles were designed as Klien-Lindner hollow axles and could be radially deflected by up to 37 mm. The latter were mounted in outer frames, which gave the locomotive an unusual appearance.

A cylinder block was located in the center of the locomotive on each side, in which a high-pressure cylinder drove the rear chassis and a low-pressure cylinder drove the front chassis. This resulted in a short distance between the cylinders, but a long way for the steam to travel from the boiler to the cylinder blocks and back to the blastpipe. This construction proved to be very successful in terms of running characteristics in curves and wear, but required a great deal of maintenance. In addition, the frequent slipping of the wheels resulted in different levels of wear on the wheel tires of the two engines. As a result, the synchronization of the high and low pressure cylinders was quickly lost, so that frequent readjustment of the control was necessary.

Despite this, the two units did their job reliably, with the smooth running being particularly noticeable and with a top speed of 70 km/h they were relatively fast for freight trains. They were taken over by the Reichsbahn and given the numbers 79 001 and 79 002. However, their service life ended in 1932, since such maintenance-intensive locomotives could not be used economically in this small number.

General
Built1916
ManufacturerHartmann
Axle config0-6-6-0T (Duplex) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length48 ft 1 3/16 in
Wheelbase36 ft 5 in
Fixed wheelbase24 ft 7 1/4 in
Empty weight164,465 lbs
Service weight203,266 lbs
Adhesive weight203,266 lbs
Axle load34,061 lbs
Water capacity2,245 us gal
Fuel capacity4,850 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power872 hp (650 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Top speed43 mph
Starting effort35,211 lbf
with start valve42,253 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter55.1 in
Boiler pressure218 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 17 5/16 x 24 13/16 in
and LP: 26 3/4 x 24 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area26.9 sq ft
Firebox area121.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,247.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,369.2 sq ft
Superheater area440.2 sq ft
Total heating area1,809.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
tank locomotive
double cylinders compound
last changed: 04/2022
Southern State Railway “Bavaria”
Austria-Hungary | 1851 | only one produced
General
Built1851
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config0-4-4-0+0-6-0 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase35 ft 11 5/8 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 8 15/16 in
Service weight160,937 lbs
Adhesive weight160,937 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power402 hp (300 kW)
Optimal speed9 mph
Starting effort30,017 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter42 in
Boiler pressure123 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 30 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area24.8 sq ft
Tube heating area1,883.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
prototype
powered tender
last changed: 10 2023
Southern Railway (USA) class Ms-2
United States | 1915 | 7 produced
southern.railfan.net

For the well-known Saluda grade of more than four percent, the Southern was looking for a locomotive with a particularly high tractive effort. This is where the idea came up of accommodating additional driven axles in the tender and thus using the tender as an additional adhesive weight. There were several designs, of which only the Ms-2 made it to seven.

As with all of these experimental machines, the Ms-2 was created from a conventional steam locomotive and the frame of another, older locomotive, on which a tender body was mounted. The modern class Ms Mikado was used as the locomotive, while the frame of the tender came from an older Consolidation. The five machines assembled in this way left the Southern Railway workshops in Spencer, North Carolina in 1915. A pipe went directly from the superheater exit into the tender, supplying steam to the rear engine when needed.

While the locomotive's coupling wheels were 63 inches, the tender's coupling wheels were only 50 inches, which must have led to an unusual exhaust noise. The tender's cylinders were bushed from the original 20 to 18 inches in diameter. The cylinders of the locomotive were also bushed from 27 to 26 inches to save steam. Compared to the original Ms, 1,400 instead of the previous 1,100 tons could now be towed on a gradient of 1.7 percent.

In addition to the Ms-2, other Mikados were built with a tender with a 2-6-0 wheel arrangement or locomotives with a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement with a tender with a 2-6-0 wheel arrangement. What they all had in common was the clearly decreasing tractive effort as the tender emptied. While tank locomotives still have a significant weight even with almost empty supplies, the empty weight of the tender was very low. In addition, the exhaust from the rear engine was blown into the air above the tender, which must have reduced the draft in the boiler. Just a few years later, the Ls-1 class Mallets took over the Saluda grade.

General
Built1915
ManufacturerSouthern Railway
Axle config2-8-2+2-8-0T (Duplex) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase34 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 6 in
Service weight502,940 lbs
Adhesive weight215,700 lbs
Axle load54,940 lbs
Water capacity7,500 us gal
Fuel capacity24,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,200 hp (1,641 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Starting effort47,883 lbf
Booster23,134 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area53.3 sq ft
Firebox area212 sq ft
Tube heating area3,019 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,231 sq ft
Superheater area699 sq ft
Total heating area3,930 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
duplex
powered tender
J. Hainen
last changed: 02/2024
Dundee & Newtyle “Earl of Airlie” and “Lord Wharncliffe”
Great Britain | 1833 | 2 produced
Locomotive Engineering, January 1898

The Dundee and Newtyle Railway was built in the Scottish gauge of four foot six inches and operated three locomotives of an unusual design. They were among the first British locomotives to have a bogie, which in this case was located behind the driving axle. The cylinders were arranged vertically and transmitted the power to the connecting rods via L-shaped levers.

Two locomotives of this type were built by J. and C. Carmichael in Dundee. The “Lord Wharncliffe” differed from the first locomotive in that the cylinder diameter was 11.25 inches instead of 11 inches. A third, named “Trotter” with different dimensions came from James Stirling & Co.

After the Dundee and Perth Railway had taken over the Dundee and Newtyle, the locos were also converted to standard gauge in 1849 after the line was regauged. Both locomotives were in use until 1854. The “Earl of Airlie” was restored and photographed in 1863 but not preserved for posterity.

General
Built1833
ManufacturerCarmichael
Axle config0-2-4 
Gauge4 ft 6 in (Narrow gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight21,280 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort1,446 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter64 in
Boiler pressure50 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 11 x 18 in
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 03/2023
French Northern Railway No. 437 to 444
France | 1862 | 8 produced
Locomotive Magazine, 1895

Jules Petiet, actually a successful chief engineer at the French company Nord, also implemented some unsuccessful ideas. One of these was to incorporate the features of the Crampton into a tank locomotive. The eight locomotives had a driving axle with its own cylinders at each end and three carrying axles in between.

Another special feature was the steam dryer, which Petiet also used on other locomotives. It was another cylinder that sat on top of the boiler and directed the smoke from the smokebox back into a curved chimney. The steam was passed through here and separated from water.

As was to be expected, these locomotives were unable to establish themselves, especially not in express service. As early as the 1870s they were usually found in front of passenger trains on branch lines. They were scrapped between 1878 and 1883.

General
Built1862
ManufacturerGouin
Axle config0-2-6-2-0T 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase16 ft 11 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 11 9/16 in
Service weight107,806 lbs
Adhesive weight50,927 lbs
Axle load26,235 lbs
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power536 hp (400 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Starting effort8,418 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 14 3/16 x 13 3/8 in
Boiler
Grate area28.3 sq ft
Firebox area114.1 sq ft
Tube heating area1,669.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,783.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,783.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
express
last changed: 03/2024
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