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Heavy Diesel-Hydraulic Mixed-Traffic Locomotives[Inhalt]
China Railway BJ
China | 1971 | 342 produced
Number 1001 from the series of locomotives built for cross-border traffic
Number 1001 from the series of locomotives built for cross-border traffic
Gui duàn

While the large diesel locomotives in China usually all have electric transmission, the BJ type was created as a diesel-hydraulic mainline locomotive. The choice of hydraulic transmission for one part of the rolling stock is probably due to the consideration of saving some of the raw materials used only for diesel-electric locomotives. Experience with the use of diesel-hydraulic locomotives had already been gained with the Henschel DH 4000, 30 of which had been ordered in the 1960s. The development of the hydraulic transmission was apparently based on the Voith transmission used in these locomotives. The first prototype from 1970 was a 100 km/h two-section freight locomotive, consisting of two halves, each with a 3,000 hp diesel engine. The engine was originally supposed to have 16 cylinders, but before the production of the first two-section locomotive, it was possible to bring the same engine with only twelve cylinders to the same power without sacrificing reliability. The class was called BJ, which stands for “Beijing” and indicates the location of the manufacturer's plant.

The series production of the freight locomotive was discarded, but the first passenger locomotive was made in 1971. It consisted of only one section with two driver's cabs and was designed for 120 km/h. After tests with a few prototypes, series production began in 1975 and ended in 1990 after 342 had been built. They were mainly used in the northern and central regions of China. For cross-border traffic to the Soviet Union, 16 more locomotives were built, four of which were designed in the Soviet broad gauge of 1,520 mm. Four one-section freight locomotives with a maximum speed of 90 km/h and twelve passenger two-section locomotives were created as further variants. Shortly after the turn of the millennium, usage was nearing its end and at least 33 examples of the passenger train variant were given to North Korea free of charge as development aid, where they are or were used in freight and shunting traffic around Pyongyang.

Variantgoodspassenger
General
Built1971-1990
ManufacturerBeijing
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 6 11/16 in
Wheelbase35 ft 5 in36 ft 11 1/8 in
Service weight202,825 lbs
Adhesive weight202,825 lbs
Axle load50,706 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed56 mph75 mph
Starting effort51,032 lbf63,846 lbf
Engine12V240ZJ
Engine typeV12 diesel
Engine output2,957 hp (2,205 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 02/2022
German Federal Railway class 218
Germany | 1968 | 411 produced
218 445 with a colorfully composed passenger train in May 1989 in Calw
218 445 with a colorfully composed passenger train in May 1989 in Calw
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

As the last and most frequently built member of the V 160 family, the class 218 was the most important mainline diesel locomotive on the Bundesbahn and remained a very important model on the DB until after the year 2000. Originally designated as the V 164, it received the more powerful MTU TB10 engine from the class 215 with 1,839 kW. Later series also received the 2,060 kW TB11 or the French Pielstick 16PA 4V 200 with 16 cylinders and 1,986 kW built under license.

The hydraulic transmission could be switched between two gears while stationary, which, with a maximum speed of 100 and 140 km/h, allowed both high tractive forces for freight trains and high speeds for passenger trains. In the period up to the unification of the Bundesbahn and the Reichsbahn, they were used on non-electrified routes, sometimes double-headed, in front of almost all types of trains and, thanks to their push-pull train control, also enabled efficient use in local transport. Eventually, the Soviet class 232 locomotives took over many of their duties and supplanted them from many trains. They were also used on routes in front of passenger trains, where they could take advantage of their slightly higher speed. There were also conversions that were 160 km/h fast. Above all, these are still used to some extent today as towing locomotives for broken-down ICEs, for which they were given automatic couplings and always run in double traction.

Two traffic red 218s in June 2014 in front of the Sylt shuttle
Two traffic red 218s in June 2014 in front of the Sylt shuttle
www.fleno.de

In the meantime, their number has shrunk, but now all have either the TB11 engine with optimizations in the area of exhaust and noise insulation or have been converted to the modern MTU 16V 4000. In October 2018, a total of 126 of 399 units were still in use, half of which were used by the DB AG and half by private operators, which are gradually disappearing. In many places, the 218 was replaced by DMUs or the new genset class 245.

VariantMTU TB10MTU TB11Pielstickre-engined MTU 4000
General
Built1968, 1971-1979
ManufacturerKrupp, Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, MaK
Axle configB-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 9 11/16 in
Wheelbase46 ft 7 1/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 2 1/4 in
Service weight176,370 lbs
Adhesive weight176,370 lbs
Axle load44,092 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed87 mph
Starting effort52,830 lbf
EngineMTU 12V 956 TB10MTU 12V 956 TB11Pielstick 16PA 4V 200MTU 16 V 4000 R40/R41
Engine typeV12 dieselV16 diesel
Fuel845 us gal (diesel)
Engine output2,466 hp (1,839 kW)2,763 hp (2,060 kW)2,663 hp (1,986 kW)2,682 hp (2,000 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 04/2022
German Reichsbahn V 180
later class 118 and DB AG class 228
Germany | 1960 | 375 produced
The preserved 118 586 in the original Reichsbahn livery in April 2016 in the traditional depot Stassfurt
The preserved 118 586 in the original Reichsbahn livery in April 2016 in the traditional depot Stassfurt
Rainer Haufe

The Reichsbahn required large diesel locomotives in order to be able to switch traction from steam to diesel on the main routes. Since towards the end of the 1950s there weren't yet Comecon regulations prohibiting the production of large diesel locomotives in the GDR, LOWA developed its own twin-engine diesel locomotive for production at Lokomotivbau Karl Marx Babelsberg. To achieve the required power, two V12 turbodiesels, initially each with 900 hp, were selected, which each delivered their power to a bogie via a hydraulic transmission. The designation V 180 was derived from the total output of 1,800 hp. In the absence of suitable transmissions from their own production, Voith transmissions had to be imported from Austria, which were only replaced with indigenous ones late in the series.

The first series had two two-axle bogies and, with an axle load of 19.5 tonnes, were only suitable for main lines. After two prototypes and 85 series locomotives of this V 1800, 82 V 1801 with two times 1,000 hp were built. All series locomotives of the V 1800 were also subsequently equipped with these engines. A steam boiler was provided for train heating, occupying the space between the engines. A total of three locomotives were equipped with fiberglass canopies with forward-sloping windscreens, which were intended to reduce reflections and did not catch on.

After it was determined that a locomotive of this power class would also be suitable for branch lines, production was switched to a six-axle variant with an axle load of 15.5 tonnes from 1966. This became the V 1802 and the last engines were assigned to the class 1182 right from the factory. From 1981, 179 of the 206 six-axle units were fitted with new engines, each capable of 1,200 hp thanks to intercooling. Seven pieces of the four-axle variant also had this engine. A total of three four- and six-axle prototypes were tested with 1,400 and 1,500 hp engines. Since the 3,000 hp class 130 was already available at that time, no series production took place.

Before the delivery of the class 130 locomotives, the V 180 was also used to pull heavy express trains, although it was nominally less powerful than the class 01 express steam locomotives. Some of the six-axle locomotives were approved for operation on steep stretches and were therefore used in the Thuringian Forest, for example. Operation in front of passenger trains was soon only possible in summer because there was no electric train heating. The locomotives now known as the class 228 did not have a long life on the reunified German railway. Many engines were sold to a large number of private operators, some of whom fitted them with new engines and drove them until they were no longer worth using due to their age.

VariantV 1800V 1800 re-engined, V 1801V 1802V 1802 re-engined
General
Built1960-19661966-1970
ManufacturerLKM Babelsberg
Axle configB-B C-C 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 10 1/8 in
Wheelbase51 ft 2 3/16 in47 ft 7 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 1 7/8 in11 ft 9 3/4 in118 ft 1 5/16 in
Service weight171,960 lbs174,826 lbs206,352 lbs209,439 lbs
Adhesive weight171,960 lbs174,826 lbs206,352 lbs209,439 lbs
Axle load42,990 lbs43,707 lbs34,392 lbs34,906 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort51,256 lbf51,706 lbf60,698 lbf
EngineJohannisthal 12 KVD 21 A2Johannisthal 12 KVD 21 A3Johannisthal 12 KVD 21 AL4
Engine type2x V12 diesel
Engine output1,776 hp (1,324 kW)1,974 hp (1,472 kW)2,368 hp (1,766 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 03/2022
German Reichsbahn class 119
DB AG class 229
Germany | 1976 | 200 produced
119 130 in December 1991 with a regional train made up of Rekowagen in Aue
119 130 in December 1991 with a regional train made up of Rekowagen in Aue
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

At the beginning of the 1970s, the Reichsbahn was looking for a new, powerful diesel locomotive that, however, should have a lower axle load than the class 130 procured from the Soviet Union, so that it could also be used without restrictions on branch lines. As part of the Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Aid) agreements, Romania was given the task of developing a successor class for the V 180 or BR 118. Contrary to the wishes of the Reichsbahn, however, no engines from GDR production were installed, but licensed engines from the West German manufacturer MTU.

Similar to its German predecessor class, the new locomotive had an axle load of only 16 tonnes thanks to its six axles and was powered by two engines, initially with 900 kW each. The power was transmitted separately to both bogies by hydraulic transmissions. However, there was a heating generator between the engines, which in principle coupled the two with each other and was therefore supposed to lead to problems later in operation. In addition, many quality defects were soon identified, which led to disproportionately high failure rates, especially in the early days. The propulsion units of two defective locomotives were often combined in one locomotive body in order to obtain at least a small number of functional vehicles at short notice. Over the years, these problems have been increasingly eliminated, including the installation of 12KVD engines of indigenous production. Since these proved themselves, all locomotives were re-equipped at the beginning of the 1990s with a more powerful version, each with 1,100 kW.

In the years that followed, the cooperation between the two German railway administrations resulted in a total of 20 examples of the type now known as the class 219 being converted into the class 229. After a further increase in power and an increase in maximum speed to 140 km/h, these were increasingly used again in passenger transport and in some cases even replaced ICEs on non-electrified sections. Nevertheless, the life of the locomotives, also dubbed “submarines”, was coming to an end at the turn of the millennium. A locomotive with two 1,500 kW Caterpillar engines and a modern standard driver's cab thus remained a one-off. In the meantime, most of the 200 locomotives have been scrapped, with a few exceptions for construction trains and the Mitteldeutsche Eisenbahn GmbH.

General
Built1976-1985
ManufacturerFAUR
Axle configC-C 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 11 11/16 in
Wheelbase47 ft 7 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 9 3/4 in
Service weight218,257 lbs
Adhesive weight218,257 lbs
Axle load36,376 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort49,458 lbf
EngineJohannisthal 12KVD21-AL4
Engine type2x V12 diesel
Fuel1,057 us gal (diesel)
Engine output2,414 hp (1,800 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
passenger
freight
secondary line
last changed: 03/2022
Japanese National Railways class DD51
Japan | 1962 | 649 produced
DD51 1803 in 2007 as a work train locomotive
DD51 1803 in 2007 as a work train locomotive
Tennen-Gas
Variant1-1920-53, series 500series 800
General
Built1962-1978
ManufacturerHitachi, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi
Axle configB-2-B 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length59 ft 0 11/16 in
Service weight185,188 lbs171,960 lbs
Adhesive weight132,277 lbs123,459 lbs
Axle load33,069 lbs30,865 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed59 mph
Starting effort37,093 lbf
EngineDML61SDML61Z
Engine type2x V12 diesel
Engine output1,990 hp (1,484 kW)2,190 hp (1,633 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 09 2023
Krauss-Maffei ML 2200 C'C' and ML 3000 C'C'
German Federal Railway V 300, later class 230 and Yugoslav State Railway D 66, later class 761
Germany | 1958 | only one produced
V 300 001 before being redesignated as class 230
V 300 001 before being redesignated as class 230

After the Bundesbahn had carried out presentation tours with the V 200 in several countries in cooperation with Krauss-Maffei, the Yugoslav State Railways ordered a six-axle variant with a lower axle load in 1956. Following this, three locomotives were delivered with the manufacturer's designation ML 2200 C'C', with the number indicating the total output in hp

Like the V 200, the Yugoslav model was powered by two Maybach engines with twelve cylinders and 1,100 hp each. Due to the longer bogies and the greater distance between the pivots, the locomotive was almost two meters longer than the V 200. The space gained was used to increase the dimensions of the cooling system according to the climate in the customer's country. There the locomotives were first designated as the D 66 and became the class 761 in 1968.

After the three locomotives ordered, Krauss-Maffei built a fourth unit on their own account and did test drives first in Austria and then in the Black Forest. It was then converted to the ML 3000 C'C' in order to increase its power, increasing the top speed from 120 to 140 km/h and installing two engines with 1,500 hp each.

After lengthy tests on various routes with many inclines, the Bundesbahn leased the locomotive from January 1, 1963, which was followed by the purchase on April 17, 1964. Similar to the V 200, it was given the designation V 300 001 based on its power. In the 1960s, it was stationed in Hamm and used in front of various freight and express trains. In 1970, when it had already been renumbered 230 001, it hauled express trains on the marsh line from the mainland to Sylt. It was retired in 1975 and scrapped in 1980 after a stay in Italy.

VariantML 2200 C'C'ML 3000 C'C'
General
Built1958
ManufacturerKrauss-Maffei
Axle configC-C 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 6 1/16 in
Service weight211,644 lbs229,280 lbs
Adhesive weight211,644 lbs229,280 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs38,140 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed87 mph
Starting effort71,714 lbf
EngineMaybach MD 12V 650Maybach MD 12V 538 TB10
Engine type2x V12 diesel
Engine output2,170 hp (1,618 kW)2,958 hp (2,206 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
freight
passenger
prototype
last changed: 03/2022
Spanish State Railways series 400 (Krauss-Maffei ML 4000 B'B')
later class 340
Spain | 1966 | 32 produced
No. 4020 in the Madrid Delicias Railway Museum
No. 4020 in the Madrid Delicias Railway Museum
Falk2
General
Built1966-1969
ManufacturerKrauss-Maffei, Babcock & Wilcox
Axle configB-B 
Gauge5 ft 5 11/16 in (Iberian broad gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 9 3/16 in
Wheelbase53 ft 3 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Service weight194,007 lbs
Adhesive weight194,007 lbs
Axle load48,502 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed81 mph
Starting effort65,195 lbf
EngineMaybach MD 870
Engine type2x V16 diesel
Fuel1,321 us gal (diesel)
Engine output3,945 hp (2,942 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
diesel locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 09 2023
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