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Steam Locomotives of the London & North Eastern Railway (LNER)[Inhalt]
London & North Eastern Gresley classes A1 and A3
Great Britain | 1922 | 79 produced
A1 No. 1475 “Flying Fox”
A1 No. 1475 “Flying Fox”
collection Alan Burkwood

Since at the beginning of the 1920s the Atlantic express locomotives of the Great Northern Railway could no longer cope with the increasing train weights, Sir Nigel Gresley began to develop a Pacific locomotive. The first attempt to expand the Atlantics with another coupled axle was quickly dropped. Gresley eventually took inspiration from the Pennsylvania Railroad's K4 and developed a locomotive that just barely fit into the gauge and weight limits.

Schematic drawing of the A1 with dimensions
Schematic drawing of the A1 with dimensions
Locomotive Magazine, May 1922

From the American locomotive he took over the large firebox, which was mounted above the trailing axle, a roof of the firebox that sloped towards the rear and a boiler that tapered towards the front. What was new was the introduction of a combustion chamber, which at the same time limited the length of the smoke tubes to a tolerable level. There were three cylinders, all acting on the second coupled axle. So that the inner cylinder did not get in the way of the front coupled axle, it together with the associated connecting rod were tilted upwards by about seven degrees. Furthermore, Gresley's valve gear was used, which did not require any control mechanism on the inside and instead transmitted the valve movements of the outer cylinders to the inner cylinder via a lever mechanism.

A3 No. 4472/60103 “Flying Scotsman” in York
A3 No. 4472/60103 “Flying Scotsman” in York
Train Photos / 60103 Flying Scotsman at York NRM

The first two locomotives with the numbers 1470 and 1471 were completed in 1922 and formed the basis for the production machines. These were not completed until after the 1923 grouping and were given the class designation A1 by the LNER. Although they were actually developed for the GNR, they were used throughout the LNER network. The locomotives that were to cover longer distances were given a four-axle tender. The locomotives for the Flying Scotsman were given new types of corridor tenders, which allowed passage to the train. In order to achieve the long non-stop routes, various improvements were made to some locomotives, which were mainly in the area of control. Soon the boiler pressure was also increased from 180 to 220 psi. One of these locomotives was the first to achieve a proven speed in excess of 100 mph as the 1904 record of GWR 3700 No. 3440 “City of Truro” is not confirmed with certainty. Later, 108 mph were also reached.

A3 with corridor tender
A3 with corridor tender
Die Lokomotive, November 1928

Based on the subsequently introduced improvements, the further developed A3 was built from 1928. It also had a boiler pressure of 220psi, optimized valve gear and lubrication, better weight distribution, and slightly smaller cylinders with a higher degree of superheating. The driver's seat was moved from right to left to allow a better view of the trackside signals. The conversion of the existing class A1 locomotives soon began, but this took until 1949. This resulted in a total of 51 converted A1 and 27 newly created A3. In 1945, Gresley's successor, Thompson, significantly modified an A1 into a one-off A1/1.

Around 1960, the locomotives, which were still almost complete, were modernized further. This included a double Kylchap exhaust system and various smoke deflectors. This should allow the machines to keep to the same timetables as diesel locomotives, but their number thinned out noticeably from 1962 and the last example was retired in 1966. Today, the A3 4472 “Flying Scotsman” is the only one preserved. After undergoing a major overhaul between 2006 and 2016, it is back in service and bears the BR number 60103, which it received in 1948.

VariantA1A3
General
Built1922-19251928-1935
ManufacturerDoncaster, North British
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length70 ft 4 7/8 in
Wheelbase35 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase60 ft 10 1/2 in
Service weight207,100 lbs215,500 lbs
Adhesive weight134,400 lbs148,287 lbs
Total weight333,192 lbs
Axle load44,800 lbs49,392 lbs
Water capacity6,005 us gal
Fuel capacity17,920 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,200 hp (1,641 kW)2,400 hp (1,790 kW)
Optimal speed47 mph50 mph
Top speed90 mph
Starting effort29,835 lbf30,363 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure180 psi220 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 20 x 26 inthree, 18 1/4 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area43.5 sq ft
Firebox area215 sq ft
Tube heating area2,715 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,930 sq ft
Superheater area525 sq ft636.3 sq ft
Total heating area3,455 sq ft3,566.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Herbert Nigel Gresley
last changed: 04/2022
London & North Eastern Gresley class A4
Great Britain | 1935 | 35 produced
No. 4468 “Mallard”
No. 4468 “Mallard”
collection Taylor Rush

Gresley developed the Class A4 locomotive for the “Silver Jubilee” express train, which consisted of specially developed articulated cars. It was based on his A3 and was streamlined. Like this, it had three cylinders, but a higher boiler pressure and further optimizations within the boiler. What was striking was that the axles were in conventional friction bearings, as the initially planned German roller bearings could not be used for political reasons.

“Union of South Africa” with streamlining cut out for easier maintenance
“Union of South Africa” with streamlining cut out for easier maintenance
Andy Hawkins

The “Mallard” achieved particular fame because on July 3, 1938 it reached the still official world record for steam locomotives at 125 mph (201.2 km/h), which is controversial. It was reached on a slight down gradient and resulted in damage to a connecting rod bearing, while higher speeds on the flat were unofficially recorded in other countries. Today there are still six A4s, three of which are still operational. Among the ones that still exist today is the “Mallard”, which is not operational.

General
Built1935-1938
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length71 ft 0 3/8 in
Wheelbase35 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 6 in
Service weight230,720 lbs
Adhesive weight148,000 lbs
Total weight374,415 lbs
Axle load49,280 lbs
Water capacity6,005 us gal
Fuel capacity17,920 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,800 hp (2,088 kW)
Optimal speed50 mph
Top speed90 mph
Starting effort35,455 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure250 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 18 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area41.2 sq ft
Firebox area231.2 sq ft
Tube heating area2,344.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,576 sq ft
Superheater area749 sq ft
Total heating area3,325 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
Herbert Nigel Gresley
last changed: 10/2023
London & North Eastern class A8
Great Britain | 1931 | 45 produced
British Railways No. 69873 in June 1954 at Middlesbrough depot
British Railways No. 69873 in June 1954 at Middlesbrough depot
Ben Brooksbank / Ex-North Eastern Raven Class A8 4-6-2T at Middlesbrough Locomotive Depot
General
Built1931-1936
ManufacturerGateshead
Axle config4-6-2T (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 6 in
Wheelbase33 ft 3 in
Service weight194,432 lbs
Adhesive weight119,056 lbs
Axle load39,872 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity8,960 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power975 hp (727 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph
Starting effort22,890 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 16 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area23 sq ft
Firebox area124 sq ft
Tube heating area961 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,085 sq ft
Superheater area191 sq ft
Total heating area1,276 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 10 2023
London & North Eastern class P1
Great Britain | 1925 | 2 produced
P1/2 No. 2394
P1/2 No. 2394
Cecil J. Allen, „The Steel Highway” (1928)

The LNER originally planned a locomotive with a 2-10-0 wheel arrangement as a more powerful successor to the GNR Class O2. Ultimately, the two class P1 locomotives were built in 1925 and had the wheel arrangement 2-8-2. To increase tractive power, they had three cylinders and an additional booster on the trailing axle. The tractive power was sufficient for trains with 100 coal cars, but due to their length they caused problems in the operational process and meant that there was no series production. Because the boosters consumed too much coal and steam was leaking into the cab, they were removed in 1937 and 1938. In 1942 both locomotives were rebuilt to class P1/2, with smaller cylinders and higher boiler pressure. Immediately after the end of the Second World War, they were scrapped because the decline in freight traffic meant that there couldn't be found another area of use.

VariantP1/1 with boosterP1/2
General
Built19251942, 1943
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase36 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 6 in
Service weight223,888 lbs
Adhesive weight160,048 lbs
Total weight339,248 lbs
Axle load41,216 lbs
Water capacity5,644 us gal
Fuel capacity15,680 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,600 hp (1,193 kW)2,000 hp (1,491 kW)
Optimal speed26 mph30 mph
Starting effort38,497 lbf42,464 lbf
Booster9,500 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in
Boiler pressure180 psi220 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, center: 20 x 26 in
outside: 10 x 12 in
three, 19 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area41.3 sq ft
Firebox area215 sq ft
Tube heating area2,715 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,930 sq ft
Superheater area525 sq ft
Total heating area3,455 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
booster
last changed: 10/2023
London & North Eastern class P2
Great Britain | 1934 | 6 produced
No. 2002 “Earl Marischal”
No. 2002 “Earl Marischal”
flickr/Historical Railway Images

For the difficult LNER line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen, Gresley designed the 2-8-2 express locomotive of the class P2. Being the only eight-coupled express locomotive regularly used in Britain, this allowed enough traction on heavy trains on the grades which reached up to 1.34 percent. Only six were built which got names from Scottish lore.

The first one built in 1934, No. 2001 “Cock o' the North”, got Lentz poppet valves and a double Kylchap exhaust. All others received a more conventional Walschaerts valve gear. Also the first later got this type of valve gear. The last four had a longer firebox and there were also changes in production due to problems with smoke lifting. In 1936, they got streamlined fronts.

No. 2006 “Wolf of Badenoch”
No. 2006 “Wolf of Badenoch”
flickr/Historical Railway Images

Due to reliability issues originating from the difficult maintenance under war conditions, Thompson rebuilt all six P2 into A2/2 Pacifics in 1943 and 1944. So no P2 is preserved, but today there are two undertakings which are building a new P2 each. One will be non-streamlined and called 2007 “Prince of Wales”, while the other will be a replica of 2001 “Cock o' the North”.

General
Built1934-1936
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase37 ft 11 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase64 ft 1 in
Service weight247,520 lbs
Adhesive weight180,544 lbs
Total weight382,704 lbs
Axle load44,800 lbs
Water capacity6,005 us gal
Fuel capacity20,160 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,800 hp (2,088 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Starting effort43,462 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter74 in
Boiler pressure220 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 21 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area50 sq ft
Firebox area252.5 sq ft
Tube heating area2,345.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,598 sq ft
Superheater area749 sq ft
Total heating area3,347 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Herbert Nigel Gresley
last changed: 05/2024
London & North Eastern classes V1 and V3
Great Britain | 1930 | 92 produced
V1 No. 7677 in April 1948
V1 No. 7677 in April 1948
flickr/stratfordman72

Gresley developed the V1 as a powerful tank locomotive for suburban lines. Its drive consisted of three cylinders cast in one piece. Between 1930 and 1939, 82 V1s were built, which were initially used in the Glasgow and Edinburgh area. Ten V3s were then built, which had 20 psi higher boiler pressure. From 1948, a total of 71 V1s were converted to V3s by the LNER and British Railways. The decommissioning took place between 1960 and 1964.

VariantV1V3
General
Built1930-19391939-1940
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config2-6-2T (Prairie) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase32 ft 3 in
Service weight127,800 lbs130,140 lbs
Axle load43,120 lbs44,800 lbs
Water capacity2,402 us gal
Fuel capacity8,960 lbs (coal)10,080 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,050 hp (783 kW)
Optimal speed30 mph27 mph
Starting effort22,464 lbf24,960 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68 in
Boiler pressure180 psi200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 16 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area22 sq ft
Firebox area127 sq ft
Tube heating area1,197 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,324 sq ft
Superheater area284 sq ft
Total heating area1,608 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
Herbert Nigel Gresley
last changed: 04/2023
London & North Eastern class V2 “Green Arrow”
Great Britain | 1936 | 184 produced
No. 40800 “Green Arrow”, the original No. 4771, at the Crewe Open Day in June 2003
No. 40800 “Green Arrow”, the original No. 4771, at the Crewe Open Day in June 2003
Our Phellap
General
Built1936-1944
ManufacturerDoncaster, Darlington
Axle config2-6-2 (Prairie) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length66 ft 5 1/8 in
Wheelbase33 ft 8 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase56 ft 2 in
Service weight208,544 lbs
Adhesive weight146,944 lbs
Total weight325,024 lbs
Axle load49,280 lbs
Water capacity5,044 us gal
Fuel capacity16,800 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,350 hp (1,752 kW)
Optimal speed44 mph
Starting effort33,730 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter74 in
Boiler pressure220 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 18 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area41.3 sq ft
Firebox area215 sq ft
Tube heating area2,216 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,431 sq ft
Superheater area680 sq ft
Total heating area3,111 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
freight
passenger
last changed: 08 2023
London & North Eastern class W1 “Hush-Hush”
Great Britain | 1929 | only one produced
flickr/stratfordman72

In 1929, Gresley attempted to build a high-pressure locomotive using the Yarrow boiler from shipbuilding. This boiler consisted of three barrels arranged in a delta shape and was not divided into a firebox and a boiler barrel. It was faired with a streamlined mantle and operated at 450 psi. The chassis came from an A1 Pacific and was expanded to include an additional, independently movable trailing axle. A four-cylinder compound engine was used, which had relatively small cylinders due to the high pressure. Since the boiler did not meet the expectations placed upon it, the locomotive was rebuilt with a conventional boiler in 1936 and was given three cylinders of the same size.

Variantas builtrebuilt
General
Built19291936
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config4-6-4 (Hudson) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight241,920 lbs
Adhesive weight147,840 lbs
Water capacity6,005 us gal
Fuel capacity20,160 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,000 hp (2,237 kW)2,500 hp (1,864 kW)
Optimal speed73 mph38 mph
Starting effort26,325 lbf41,438 lbf
with start valve31,590 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure450 psi250 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, HP: 12 x 26 in
and LP: 20 x 26 in
three, 20 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area35 sq ft50 sq ft
Firebox area1,114 sq ft
Tube heating area1,484 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,598 sq ft
Superheater area750 sq ft
Total heating area3,348 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
prototype
high pressure
Herbert Nigel Gresley
streamline
last changed: 03/2023
London & North Eastern Peppercorn class A1
Great Britain | 1948 | 49 produced
The 2008 built No. 60163 “Tornado” in October 2016 in Helpston near Peterborough
The 2008 built No. 60163 “Tornado” in October 2016 in Helpston near Peterborough
Alan Wilson
General
Built1948-1949, 2008
ManufacturerDoncaster, Darlington
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length72 ft 11 3/4 in
Wheelbase36 ft 3 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft
Total wheelbase62 ft 5 in
Service weight235,648 lbs
Adhesive weight149,072 lbs
Total weight372,064 lbs
Axle load49,504 lbs
Water capacity6,005 us gal
Fuel capacity20,160 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power2,700 hp (2,013 kW)
Optimal speed46 mph
Top speed100 mph
Starting effort37,397 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure250 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 19 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area50 sq ft
Firebox area245.3 sq ft
Tube heating area2,216.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,461.4 sq ft
Superheater area697.7 sq ft
Total heating area3,159.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 10 2023
London & North Eastern Thompson/Peppercorn class K1
Great Britain | 1949 | 70 produced
No. 62005 “Lord of the Isles” in Tyseley in April 2009
No. 62005 “Lord of the Isles” in Tyseley in April 2009
Tony Hisgett

The K1 was a mixed traffic locomotive designed for the LNER, but was only delivered directly to British Railways in 1949 and 1950. Since Edward Thompson was a fan of two-cylinder locomotives, he rebuilt a K4 from three to two cylinders in 1945. Since the new cylinders were only slightly larger than the old ones, he increased the boiler pressure to keep the loss of tractive power to a minimum. This prototype was designated K1/1 and was considered a success.

Series production of 70 K1s did not begin until 1949, when Arthur Peppercorn was chief engineer of the Eastern and North Eastern Region of British Railways. Compared to the prototype, he had made some changes, which included improvements to the firebox and the suspension of the leading axle. He also now used a tender with a water capacity of 4,200 gallons instead of 3,500.

The K1s mostly remained in service in the area of the former LNER. With a maximum forward speed of 50 mph and reverse 45 mph, they were used on all types of trains, including express trains. Their withdrawal took place between 1962 and 1967. Only the 62005, which has been operational again since 1975, has been preserved. It wore LNER livery most of the time with the imaginary number 2005, which is historically incorrect.

General
Built1949-1950
ManufacturerNorth British
Axle config2-6-0 (Mogul) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length59 ft 10 in
Total wheelbase49 ft 5 in
Service weight147,840 lbs
Adhesive weight127,456 lbs
Axle load43,008 lbs
Water capacity5,044 us gal
Fuel capacity16,800 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,400 hp (1,044 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph
Starting effort32,081 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in
Boiler pressure225 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area27.9 sq ft
Firebox area168 sq ft
Tube heating area1,240 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,408 sq ft
Superheater area300 sq ft
Total heating area1,708 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Edward Thompson
Arthur Henry Peppercorn
last changed: 04/2024
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