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Steam Locomotives of the Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)[Inhalt]
Chesapeake & Ohio class B-1 (1889)
United States | 1889 | 2 produced
ALCO

Although the 0-4-4T wheel arrangement was mostly found on small Elevated railroad locomotives in the USA, there were also larger examples. The Chesapeake & Ohio received two from ALCO in Schenectady in 1889, which they designated as class B-1. With a service weight of 110,000 pounds and cylinders measuring 17 by 24 inches, they were significantly heavier than most Forneys. One locomotive was sold to J.T. Gardner and the second was scrapped in 1913. Later the class designation was used for new locomotives with a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement, which came to the C&O via the Hocking Valley.

General
Built1889
ManufacturerALCO
Axle config0-4-4T (Forney) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length23 ft 7 in
Wheelbase23 ft 7 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 6 in
Service weight110,000 lbs
Adhesive weight75,000 lbs
Axle load37,500 lbs
Water capacity1,500 us gal
Fuel capacity6,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power400 hp (298 kW)
Optimal speed16 mph
Starting effort15,515 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area14.3 sq ft
Firebox area127.8 sq ft
Tube heating area1,100.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,228 sq ft
Total heating area1,228 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
tank locomotive
passenger
last changed: 08/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio classes J-1 and J-2
United States | 1911 | 3 produced
No. 540 in 1934 in Columbus, Ohio
No. 540 in 1934 in Columbus, Ohio
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, October 1911

When hauling the new steel passenger cars over the Allegheny Mountains, the class F-15 Pacific locomotives quickly reached their limits, so that the trains could not consist of more than six cars. As a remedy, a new type of locomotive was designed in which, compared to the Pacific, a fourth coupled axle was added and the diameter of the wheels was slightly reduced in order to obtain more adhesive weight and to be able to install a larger boiler. Since this was the first locomotive with a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement in North America, the C&O gave the design the name “Mountain”.

Compared to the F-15, the tractive effort was almost doubled and the indicated power increased to almost 2,500 hp. Ten steel cars with a total weight of around 600 tons could now be hauled over the Alleghenies without any problems. With this load, you could reach 25 mph at 2.52 percent, and even 70 mph were reached on the flat. However, a disadvantage of the smaller coupling wheels and the special design of the Heusinger valve gear was that the engines exerted a very high hammer blow on the rails. As a result, only three class J-1 locomotives remained and from then on significantly more powerful Pacific class F-16 and F-17 locomotives were procured for the same task.

During World War I, the J-1 had to haul heavy freight trains across the Alleghenies. After the end of the war, seven examples of the USRA Heavy Mountain were procured and designated Class J-2. These put less strain on the rails with larger coupling wheels and Baker valve gear and, due to the increased boiler output, were able to generate approximately the same tractive effort.

In the 1920s, the J-1's valve gear was optimized with the help of new knowledge in order to reduce the known problems. In addition, the J-2s were soon fitted with Heusinger valve gear and were then referred to as the J-2a. In the 1930s and 1940s they were overtaken by the new J-3 and L-2 class locomotives, which initially led to the J-1 being phased out by 1948. Shortly thereafter, the C&O passenger trains were converted to diesel traction, which also meant that the J-2 was retired by 1952.

VariantJ-1J-2a
General
Built1911-19121918-1919, 1922
ManufacturerALCOALCO, Baldwin
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length87 ft 11 1/8 in
Service weight330,000 lbs363,550 lbs
Adhesive weight238,000 lbs246,850 lbs
Total weight549,100 lbs663,550 lbs
Axle load59,500 lbs61,800 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal16,000 us gal
Fuel capacity30,000 lbs (coal)2,016 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort58,110 lbf57,948 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in69 in
Boiler pressure180 psi200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 29 x 28 intwo, 28 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area66.5 sq ft76.2 sq ft
Firebox area338 sq ft438 sq ft
Tube heating area3,770 sq ft4,289 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,108 sq ft4,727 sq ft
Superheater area850 sq ft1,085 sq ft
Total heating area4,958 sq ft5,812 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2022
Chesapeake & Ohio class F-16
United States | 1913 | 8 produced
No. 462 in June 1948 in Richmond, Virginia
No. 462 in June 1948 in Richmond, Virginia
August A. Thieme, Jr. / collection Taylor Rush

The F-16 class Pacifics were designed to haul express trains of 700 short tons over graded routes. They were similar in many respects to the ALCO No. 50,000, designated the Erie K-3 class, but were built by Baldwin. With a driver diameter of only 73 inches, they were well suited for the inclines. They were brought up to date over their service life, for example by installing a stoker. After the Second World War they could still be found in local traffic.

General
Built1913
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-6-2 (Pacific) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight290,000 lbs
Adhesive weight190,000 lbs
Total weight535,000 lbs
Axle load63,335 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal
Fuel capacity30,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort43,970 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure185 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 27 x 28 in
Boiler
Grate area60.4 sq ft
Firebox area250.8 sq ft
Tube heating area3,534.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,785 sq ft
Superheater area879 sq ft
Total heating area4,664 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 07/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio class H-7
United States | 1923 | 45 produced
Former C&O No. 1123 as Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac No. 2
Former C&O No. 1123 as Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac No. 2
collection Taylor Rush

After various Mallets with the wheel arrangement 2-6-6-2, the C&O had the class H-7 built with the wheel arrangement 2-8-8-2. In 1923 and 1924, 25 H-7s were delivered by ALCO and in 1926 20 H-7a by Baldwin followed, which had a slightly higher adhesive weight. Since, unlike their predecessors, they worked with simple expansion, they were called “Simple Simons”.

By 1935 they received a boiler pressure of now 215 instead of 205 psi and thermic syphons. The 632 square foot firebox heating area now included 145 square feet from the combustion chamber and 165 from the thermic syphons. They could haul a 9,500 short tons freight train 113 miles in five hours.

They were replaced on the flatter lines by the class T-1 2-10-4s and on hilly lines by the 2-6-6-6 “Alleghenies”. 30 of the 45 locomotives were later leased to the Union Pacific. The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac also bought some locomotives.

General
Built1923-1926
ManufacturerALCO, Baldwin
Axle config2-8-8-2 (Mikado Mallet) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase58 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase15 ft 9 in
Total wheelbase104 ft 8 1/2 in
Service weight567,500 lbs
Adhesive weight493,070 lbs
Total weight943,840 lbs
Axle load65,200 lbs
Water capacity21,000 us gal
Fuel capacity50,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,850 hp (3,617 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph
Starting effort108,547 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57 in
Boiler pressure215 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 23 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area112.2 sq ft
Firebox area632 sq ft
Tube heating area5,948 sq ft
Evaporative heating area6,580 sq ft
Superheater area1,849 sq ft
Total heating area8,429 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
Articulated
last changed: 07/2023
Pere Marquette classes N to N2
United States | 1937 | 39 produced
No. 1225 marked “Polar Express” in December 2004 in Henderson, Michigan
No. 1225 marked “Polar Express” in December 2004 in Henderson, Michigan
Stephen Wilder

For use in front of fast freight trains, the Pere Marquette also chose the 2-8-4 “Berkshire” wheel arrangement in the late 1930s. It was able to develop great power at speeds of up to 70 mph thanks to the large firebox above the bogie. Of a total of 466 square feet in the firebox, 122 were made up of thermosiphons and water pipes. This allowed 26 by 34 inch cylinders to be operated with 69 inch wheels.

The first delivery from 1937 included 15 class N locomotives. The last five of these had a booster in the bogie. In the years 1941 and 1944 twelve more N1 and N2 each followed. When the Pere Marquette was merged into the Chesapeake & Ohio in 1947, the N1 and N2 classes became the N-1 and N-2 and the N class became the N-3. The two newer series, which had not yet been paid for by the C&O, kept the color scheme and the old numbers.

From 1951 the locomotives were also used on routes other than those originally operated by the Pere Marquette. The first series was scrapped by 1954. The use of the newer machines ended in 1958 and a total of 13 units were stored until 1961, as payments were still outstanding.

Numbers 1223 and 1225 are still preserved today, both of which belong to class N1. The 1225 is the only still functional Pere Marquette locomotive today. It has been used intermittently since 1985 and formed the basis for the locomotive in the book and film “The Polar Express”. Today it is used almost every year around Christmas time on the “North Pole Express” in Michigan.

General
Built1937, 1941, 1944
ManufacturerLima
Axle config2-8-4 (Berkshire) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length101 ft 8 3/8 in
Wheelbase42 ft
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 2 1/2 in
Total wheelbase88 ft 2 3/4 in
Service weight442,500 lbs
Adhesive weight277,600 lbs
Total weight805,900 lbs
Axle load69,400 lbs
Water capacity22,000 us gal
Fuel capacity44,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,500 hp (3,356 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort69,368 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure245 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 34 in
Boiler
Grate area90.3 sq ft
Firebox area466 sq ft
Tube heating area4,311 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,777 sq ft
Superheater area1,932 sq ft
Total heating area6,709 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 02/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio class H-8 “Allegheny”
United States | 1941 | 60 produced
No. 1633 on a Lima works photo
No. 1633 on a Lima works photo

In order to significantly increase speeds of heavy and fast freight trains, the C&O had the H-8 class developed by Lima. The inspiration came from the class A of the Norfolk & Western with the wheel arrangement 2-6-6-4. A three-axle trailing bogie ensured that an even larger firebox could be installed than on the existing locomotives. It was given relatively large drivers and steam heating so that it could pull passenger trains at 70 mph (113 km/h) if necessary.

The boiler was even larger than on the Big Boy and the locomotives were otherwise designed according to the latest standards. With an output of around 7,500 hp on the drawbar, the locomotives were among the most powerful steam locomotives ever. The installation of a booster in the bogie was rejected because even higher tractive forces were not required. There is some controversy regarding the actual weight of the H-8, as changes during development made it significantly heavier than originally planned. The first driving axle was loaded with 86,700 pounds or 39.3 t, which was the highest axle load of any steam locomotive.

The C&O named the wheel arrangement “Allegheny” after the mountain range that had to be overcome. Here two H-8 hauled up to 11,500 short tons. There they replaced the 2-8-8-2 class H-7 and enabled approximately twice the speed for heavy coal trains. On flatter routes they replaced the 2-10-4 T-1 class and could pull up to 13,500 short tons alone.

The first 45 H-8s were built during World War II, during which time they had to pull both urgent cargo and troop transports. The Virginian had eight AG class locomotives built in 1945, which were based on the H-8. In 1948 the C&O received another 15 H-8s, which were again similar to the AG. As early as 1952, the first H-8s were replaced by diesel locomotives. By 1956 they had all disappeared and today 1601 and 1604 remain preserved in static condition.

Variant1600-16441645-1659
General
Built1941-19441948
ManufacturerLima
Axle config2-6-6-6 (Allegheny (Mallet)) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length loco76 ft 8 3/8 in
Wheelbase62 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 10 in
Total wheelbase112 ft 11 in
Service weight771,300 lbs751,830 lbs
Adhesive weight507,900 lbs504,010 lbs
Total weight1,199,400 lbs1,183,540 lbs
Axle load86,700 lbs85,480 lbs
Water capacity25,000 us gal
Fuel capacity50,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power8,000 hp (5,966 kW)
Optimal speed46 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort110,211 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter67 in
Boiler pressure260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersfour, 22 1/2 x 33 in
Boiler
Grate area135.2 sq ft135 sq ft
Firebox area762 sq ft
Tube heating area6,478 sq ft6,033 sq ft
Evaporative heating area7,240 sq ft6,795 sq ft
Superheater area3,186 sq ft2,922 sq ft
Total heating area10,426 sq ft9,717 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
Articulated
last changed: 11/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio class K-4
United States | 1943 | 90 produced
No. 2748 in Columbus, Ohio
No. 2748 in Columbus, Ohio
collection Taylor Rush

In order to be able to cope with the increase in fast freight trains caused by the war, the C&O had locomotives built with the wheel arrangement 2-8-4. While this wheel arrangement is commonly known as “Berkshire” in North America, the C&O named it “Kanawha” after a river in West Virginia. The engineers called them "Big Mikes". They shared many similarities with the Pere Marquette N class, but were slightly heavier overall and had a tender with a larger amount of coal. By 1947, a total of 90 had been built by ALCO and Lima. They all had a booster in the trailing truck. They were used not only for fast freight trains, but also for passenger trains. The first of these locomotives were replaced by diesel locomotives as early as 1952, and by 1957 the last one had disappeared from active service. Twelve of these still exist today and number 2716 is being restored to working condition since 2019.

General
Built1943-1947
ManufacturerALCO, Lima
Axle config2-8-4 (Berkshire) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length105 ft 2 in
Wheelbase42 ft
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 2 in
Total wheelbase93 ft 2 in
Service weight460,000 lbs
Adhesive weight292,000 lbs
Total weight848,000 lbs
Axle load73,800 lbs
Water capacity21,000 us gal
Fuel capacity60,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,475 hp (3,337 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Top speed70 mph
Starting effort69,368 lbf
Booster14,000 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure245 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 34 in
Boiler
Grate area90.3 sq ft
Firebox area462 sq ft
Tube heating area4,311 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,773 sq ft
Superheater area1,932 sq ft
Total heating area6,705 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
last changed: 08/2023
Chesapeake & Ohio class M-1
United States | 1947 | 3 produced
No. 500
No. 500
collection Taylor Rush

While other railroads switched from coal to diesel, the C&O refused to take this step for a while. Given their huge coal business, attempts were made to modernize the fleet while retaining coal as fuel. In 1948 and 1949, a total of three coal-fired steam turbine locomotives were built, which were the longest single-unit locomotives in the world and were nicknamed “Holy Cow”.

In the front part of the locomotives was the coal bunker, which fed the 6,000 hp turbine in the rear part of the locomotive. The water came from an additional tender. The eight traction motors were powered by the four generators, which together delivered 4,960 hp. With this system it was hoped that maintenance would be easier than with piston steam locomotives and the aim was to complete round trips of 1,000 miles without servicing stops.

The intended area of operation was the planned “Chessie” streamlined train. With a top speed of 100 mph (161 km/h) of the locomotives, this was to be hauled at a cruising speed of 70 mph (113 km/h). The M-1's fate finally came when they turned out to be very unreliable and the “Chessie” did not come into being. They were eventually used in other areas for only a short time and were scrapped in 1950.

General
Built1947-1948
ManufacturerBaldwin, Westinghouse
Axle config4-6-2+4-6-2+0-4-0TE 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length154 ft 1 in
Service weight857,000 lbs
Adhesive weight507,000 lbs
Total weight1,360,125 lbs
Axle load63,500 lbs
Water capacity25,000 us gal
Power
Power sourcesteam turbine-electric
Top speed100 mph
Engine output6,000 hp (4,474 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter40 in
Boiler pressure310 psi
Boiler
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
turbine
steam turbine-electric
prototype
last changed: 03/2024
Hocking Valley class F-1
Chesapeake & Ohio class B-1
United States | 1919 | 16 produced
No. 2954 in May 1939 at Potomac Yard, Virginia
No. 2954 in May 1939 at Potomac Yard, Virginia
Bruce D. Fales / collection Taylor Rush

In 1920, the Hocking Valley Railroad received 16 freight locomotives from the Lehigh Valley with a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement, which, with a driver diameter of 63 inches, were too slow for their requirements. The new operator gave the almost new locomotives the class designation F-1. A few years later, six went to the Pere Marquette. The Hocking Valley was taken over by the Chesapeake & Ohio in 1930 and those ten remaining locomotives became the class B-1, carried by two Forneys until 1913. They got bigger tenders in 1940 and were used until 1952.

Variantas builtlarger tender
General
Built19191940
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-10-2 (Santa Fé) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Service weight374,100 lbs
Adhesive weight293,560 lbs
Total weight598,200 lbs679,100 lbs
Axle load61,520 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal16,000 us gal
Fuel capacity35,000 lbs (coal)45,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,300 hp (3,207 kW)
Optimal speed37 mph
Starting effort74,435 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure205 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 29 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area100 sq ft
Firebox area408 sq ft
Tube heating area4,379 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,787 sq ft
Superheater area1,179 sq ft
Total heating area5,966 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 08/2023
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