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Baden and Württemberg steam locomotives[Inhalt]
A train exiting Heidelberg station, 1840
A train exiting Heidelberg station, 1840
J. Schütz

In the southwest of the German Confederation were the Grand Duchy of Baden and the Kingdom of Württemberg. Although these two states form one federal state today, their state railways were in fierce competition with each other until the establishment of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and competed for the transit traffic across the Alps.

After Braunschweig, Baden was the second German state to establish a state railway. The motivation to do so began in 1837, when a railway line was opened on the left bank of the Rhine in Alsace, France, and the intention was to build a separate line on the right bank as a competitor. The administration of the railway was assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which handed over the implementation to the Oberpostdirektion (main post directorate).

Extent of the Baden network in 1870
Extent of the Baden network in 1870
MCMC

Thus, in 1838, the construction of the Baden Main Railway began, which was to go from Mannheim to Basel in Switzerland. It was designed with a gauge of 1,600 mm, which gave it a unique position over a wide radius. The first section of this route was opened in September 1940 and went to Heidelberg. It arrived Haltingen just before the Swiss border in 1851 and first needed negotiations with Switzerland about the continuation to Basel. There were also tough negotiations with Württemberg, as initially it was not possible to agree on the position another transit corridor further to the east.

They stuck to the broad gauge for a long time because future traffic across national borders was considered unrealistic and so most of the main line was built in this gauge. Re-gauging did not take place until 1854 and 1855, when they noticed that all neighboring countries, without exception, were running their networks in the standard gauge of 4 feet and 8 1/2 inches. Basel was also reached in 1855 and the main line was extended to Constance by 1863. After this was considered complete with a length of 414.3 km or 257.5 miles, the regional development was brought further with branch lines.

State of the Württemberg main routes from 1854
State of the Württemberg main routes from 1854
Ssch

In addition, more and more routes were opened to the neighboring German states, as well as to Switzerland and France. A masterpiece of its time came with the Black Forest Railway, which was built between 1863 and 1873 and climbed 650 meters over a length of 149 km and traversed 39 tunnels. When the post was dis-incorporated into the Reichspost in 1872, the independent Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways were founded.

As in many places on the European mainland, when it came to vehicles, the focus was initially set on England and the first locomotives were ordered from Sharp, Roberts & Co. in Manchester. In 1841, Emil Kessler founded the mechanical engineering company in Karlsruhe to supply the state railway with vehicles. Karlsruhe remained the main supplier for a long time, and many locomotives were also procured from Grafenstaden in Alsace and Maffei in Munich. While international trends were picked up with Crampton locomotives in the early years, locomotives with streamlined fairings and four-cylinder compound powerplants were later put into service. The cogwheel system based on the Bissinger-Klose system was used on the Höllentalbahn in the Black Forest.

The twelve-coupled Württemberg K
The twelve-coupled Württemberg K
Die Lokomotive, January 1919

Concerning the neighbors in the Kingdom of Baden, as early as 1834 private businessmen had plans for railway lines. However, since the state wanted to keep the lucrative main routes and especially the border crossings under control of itself, these plans were initially rejected. Finally, in 1843, the Royal Württemberg State Railways were founded and it was stipulated by law that private companies could build branch lines.

The main lines were opened in sections starting from Stuttgart between 1845 and 1854. It all started with the Eastern Railway, which led to Ulm and from there was continued by the Southern Railway to Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance. In addition, the Western Railway was built from Stuttgart to Bruchsal in Baden and the Northern Railway to Heilbronn. It was not until 1959 that the construction of branch lines began on a larger scale.

In contrast to the neighbors, American models were used for the vehicles in Württemberg. So you could not only recognize clear American lines on the locomotives of the 1840s, but also find heavy large-capacity passenger cars with bogies. Over time, Prussian influences prevailed, while the vehicles continued to be mainly manufactured in Esslingen. From 1885 Adolf Klose, who introduced achievements such as compound engines and cogwheel locomotives, was in charge as chief machine master. He was followed in 1896 by Eugen Kittel, who introduced superheated steam in Württemberg and was one of the first in Germany to procure steam railcars. With the K, he introduced the only twelve-coupled steam locomotive in Germany.

After the First World War, both railways met the same fate as all state railways. When the Grand Duke of Baden abdicated on November 9, 1918, the name was changed to “Baden State Railways”. At this point the inventory consisted of 915 locomotives, 2,500 passenger cars and 27,600 freight cars. In Württemberg, the king abdicated on November 30 of the same year, so the term “Royal” was removed from the name here as well. Before the war, the rolling stock consisted of around 850 locomotives, 2,500 passenger cars and 15,300 freight cars. In 1920 both were merged into the Deutsche Reichsbahn and their networks formed the Reichsbahn divisions in Karlsruhe and Stuttgart.

Badenian IX
later II a old
Germany | 1854 | 26 produced
No. 7 “Badenia” on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
No. 7 “Badenia” on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

The IX was an express locomotive of the Crampton type, which was originally to be built as a freight locomotive and underwent a number of modifications before it was delivered to the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways. Also due to the very rapid development at that time, the locomotives differed depending on the year of construction.

The characteristics of a Crampton locomotive were immediately apparent. These included a low-lying boiler mounted approximately midway above the two leading axles and a single driving axle with very large wheels located behind the boiler. This design offered great smoothness at high speeds, but only a low friction weight.

Since a broad gauge of 1,600 mm was initially used in Baden, the class IX was also designed for this gauge during its development phase. However, because between 1854 and 1855 all lines were changed to the standard gauge of 1,435 mm, later locomotives were also built with this gauge

Comparison of the first design with a chimney located to the rear and the fourth series from 1863
Comparison of the first design with a chimney located to the rear and the fourth series from 1863
Die Lokomotive, September 1909

Another change before commissioning was the installation of a normal smoke box with the chimney at the front end of the boiler. The first two engines “Adler” and “Falke” had received a return flue from the factory, which means that the chimney was located in the middle of the boiler and thanks to the shorter steam tubes, the back pressure from the cylinders was reduced. However, this arrangement was not convincing due to the flue clogging with soot and ash and quickly disappeared from the scene.

The locomotives had an outside frame, whereby the power was transmitted to the driving axle via Hall cranks. In the second series, the leading axles were in a bogie, but in the rest they were stored in the frame again.

In addition to the two pre-series models, three other series of eight locomotives each were produced. Due to the increasing train weights, the first examples were retired in 1875. The others were first pushed into service with normal passenger trains and later only used for shunting. Today only the “Phoenix” locomotive still exists. It was refurbished in 1960 and has been in the Nuremberg Transport Museum ever since.

Variantseries 1series 2series 3series 4
General
Built18541854-18561858-18591863
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge5 ft 3 in (Irish broad gauge), 4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 9 in43 ft 1 11/16 in43 ft 0 1/8 in41 ft 3 1/4 in
Wheelbase12 ft 3 1/3 in14 ft 4 1/2 in12 ft 3 1/3 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 3 1/3 in14 ft 4 1/2 in12 ft 3 1/3 in
Empty weight57,100 lbs58,202 lbs52,911 lbs53,462 lbs
Service weight61,509 lbs62,832 lbs61,068 lbs61,729 lbs
Adhesive weight26,455 lbs28,660 lbs25,353 lbs27,558 lbs
Water capacity1,427 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power130 hp (97 kW)140 hp (104 kW)170 hp (127 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph16 mph17 mph
Starting effort5,699 lbf6,554 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter84 in
Boiler pressure100 psi115 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area11.5 sq ft10.5 sq ft10 sq ft
Firebox area72.5 sq ft62.8 sq ft60.5 sq ft
Tube heating area820 sq ft780 sq ft800 sq ft
Evaporative heating area892.5 sq ft842.8 sq ft860.5 sq ft
Total heating area892.5 sq ft842.8 sq ft860.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 05/2022
Badenian XI
later V a
Germany | 1860 | 22 produced
Side view of a locomotive with a two-axle tender
Side view of a locomotive with a two-axle tender
works photo MBG Karlsruhe

The locomotives of type XI were four-coupled tender locomotives with a leading axle for freight train service, which were procured from 1860 by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways. They were characterized by relatively large wheels, which allowed them to be used in front of passenger trains if necessary. From 1868 it was called V a.

The locomotives were equipped with a Crampton boiler, which protruded beyond the first and last axle. Initially, the saturated steam was only extracted from a regulator attachment directly on the upper edge of the boiler, which at times led to water being fed into the cylinders. Thus, all engines of the later deliveries received a steam dome

The wheel sets were mounted within an outer frame, so the power was transmitted via Hall cranks to the first coupled axle. With a driving wheel diameter of 1,524 mm it was ensured that at the top speed of 40 km/h low rotational speeds and smooth running were still guaranteed. The leading axle was rigidly mounted, but in view of the short overall wheelbase and the low speeds, this did not entail any particular disadvantages.

The primary operational areas of the XI were the Baden main line from Mannheim to Constance and the Odenwald line, which branched off from the main line in the direction of Würzburg. In addition to shunting services in the port of Mannheim, the deployment increasingly shifted to secondary routes with the commissioning of more powerful engines, where they benefited above all from the low axle load. In the mid-1890s, the remaining 18 of the 22 examples were withdrawn within a short period of time. One of them was converted into a tank locomotive in 1875, but it was to remain a one-off.

General
Built1860-1863
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config2-4-0 (Porter) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 9 11/16 in
Wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Empty weight59,525 lbs
Service weight67,241 lbs
Adhesive weight46,297 lbs
Axle load23,149 lbs
Water capacity1,485 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power168 hp (125 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph
Top speed25 mph
Starting effort10,083 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area10.4 sq ft
Firebox area60.7 sq ft
Tube heating area1,012.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,073.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,073.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian XII
later III
Germany | 1861 | 41 produced
No. 127 with a small steam dome on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
No. 127 with a small steam dome on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

Locomotives with no coupled axles were soon no longer sufficient on the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways either, and so class XII was developed with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement and a remarkably short wheelbase. Certain similarities to Swiss locomotives are not surprising, since the Swiss network was also used in part.

Earlier locomotives often had a 2-2-2 wheel arrangement, but when adding a second coupled axle, a front bogie was chosen instead of two individual carrying axles. In order to be able to continue to use the existing turntables, the overall wheelbase was designed to be as short as possible. Due to the large driving wheels, this was not achieved simply by moving the bogie back; the bogie itself had to be made very short and the distance between the remaining axles kept as short as possible.

Since development was making rapid progress at the time, the engines differed depending on the year of construction. It was noticeable that the steam dome was relatively small in the first batches and significantly larger in the later ones. What they all had in common was that the external leaf springs were noticeable and the deceleration was carried out via spindle brakes on all wheels of the tender. Due to the design of the boiler and the position of the cylinders in front of the bogie, a speed of only 60 km/h was possible despite the large wheels.

At the beginning of the 20th century, this locomotive could be found working in shunting service in Basel
At the beginning of the 20th century, this locomotive could be found working in shunting service in Basel
Locomotive Magazine, April 1903

Despite the inadequacy, the engines of the series designated as type III from 1868 became indispensable, so that from 1869 a reinforced version was procured as III a. From 1881, many of the 41 examples of the XII or III and the III a were converted to the III b with an even more powerful boiler and longer frame. The locomotives that had not been converted were taken out of service at the beginning of the 1890s, and the rest were able to survive for a few more years after the turn of the century.

Variant1861 variant1864 variant
General
Built1861-18631864-1865
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length44 ft 1 7/16 in
Wheelbase14 ft 9 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 4 3/4 in
Total wheelbase33 ft 2 11/16 in
Empty weight56,218 lbs
Service weight63,273 lbs
Adhesive weight35,274 lbs
Axle load17,637 lbs
Water capacity1,498 us gal1,427 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power174 hp (130 kW)
Optimal speed17 mph14 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort6,712 lbf7,671 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure102 psi116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 15/16 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area10.4 sq ft
Firebox area63.1 sq ft
Tube heating area865 sq ft904.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area928.1 sq ft967.4 sq ft
Total heating area928.1 sq ft967.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian X c
later VI old
Germany | 1864 | 30 produced
“Randen” on a works photo
“Randen” on a works photo
Variant1864 variant1868 variant
General
Built1864-18671868-1869
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config0-6-0 (Six-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length48 ft 2 3/4 in48 ft 0 3/4 in
Wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Empty weight70,548 lbs73,193 lbs
Service weight78,925 lbs82,012 lbs
Adhesive weight78,925 lbs82,012 lbs
Axle load26,235 lbs27,337 lbs
Water capacity1,926 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power248 hp (185 kW)302 hp (225 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph12 mph
Top speed31 mph
Starting effort14,347 lbf16,140 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter60 in
Boiler pressure116 psi130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 27 in
Boiler
Grate area11.7 sq ft12.6 sq ft
Firebox area68.6 sq ft71.6 sq ft
Tube heating area1,061.4 sq ft1,165.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,130 sq ft1,236.7 sq ft
Total heating area1,130 sq ft1,236.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 09 2023
Badenian X d
later VII a and German Reichsbahn class 5385
Germany | 1866 | 171 produced
Factory photo of the manufacturer MBG Karlsruhe
Factory photo of the manufacturer MBG Karlsruhe

The type X d, known as VII a according to the new scheme from 1868, was the first freight locomotive to be purchased in large numbers by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways. With more and more improvements, it was able to stay in production from 1866 to 1891, resulting in 171 engines from 17 batches.

To increase the adhesive weight, all three axles were coupled, with the power being applied by the outside cylinders to the middle axle. The Stephenson-type valve gear was inside, and the greater wheelbase between the first two axles compared to the rear two is visible. In the first three batches, a large steam dome was used directly above the firebox, later a Belpaire firebox and a steam dome on the boiler barrel were used. Boiler pressure was nine bars for most batches, but was increased to ten bars for the last two batches due to advances in manufacturing and materials. Later, some engines even received a new boiler with twelve bars pressure. Two and three-axle models with different capacities were used as tenders. After retiring from line service, some locomotives were converted into tank locomotives and received a new driver's cab that was better suited for shunting.

By the outbreak of the First World War, 141 of the 171 units were still in use and the Reichsbahn finally took over 44 units in 1925, including three units from the first year of production. However, not only these were already obsolete, but also the newer batches and thus all examples of the locomotive now designated as class 5385 were retired before 1930.

Variant1866 variant1869 variant1890 variant
General
Built1866-18671868-18891890-1891
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config0-6-0 (Six-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length48 ft 0 9/16 in48 ft 5 5/16 in
Wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 3 13/16 in
Empty weight68,564 lbs74,406 lbs78,484 lbs
Service weight78,484 lbs84,437 lbs88,626 lbs
Adhesive weight78,484 lbs84,437 lbs88,626 lbs
Axle load26,015 lbs28,219 lbs29,542 lbs
Water capacity2,113 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power322 hp (240 kW)335 hp (250 kW)402 hp (300 kW)
Optimal speed11 mph12 mph13 mph
Top speed28 mph
Starting effort18,690 lbf18,241 lbf20,075 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in49.2 in49.7 in
Boiler pressure130 psi145 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 25 in
Boiler
Grate area13.6 sq ft14.3 sq ft15.8 sq ft
Firebox area75.3 sq ft77.3 sq ft80.7 sq ft
Tube heating area1,254.2 sq ft1,239.6 sq ft1,252.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,329.6 sq ft1,316.9 sq ft1,333.2 sq ft
Total heating area1,329.6 sq ft1,316.9 sq ft1,333.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian XIV
later IV a
Germany | 1866 | 46 produced

The class XIV was procured by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways from 1866 as a simply designed locomotive for slower passenger trains and possibly also for freight trains. In the new scheme of 1868 it was given the designation IV a. It is characterized by the fact that all engines built were later converted to tank locomotives

The original model had only two driving axles and a two-axle tender. The coupled wheels were fixed to an outer frame with outside cylinders. However, only the connecting and coupling rods were on the outside, while the valve gear was on the inside.

Rebuilt as tank engine
Rebuilt as tank engine

Because the entire weight of the locomotive was carried on the coupled wheels, it had a high tractive effort and was also used to pull freight trains. Trains weighing more than 1,000 tons could be moved at 45 km/h on almost level routes. By 1868, 46 examples had been produced in three batches, which were manufactured by the Karlsruhe and Grafenstaden factories.

When significantly faster and more powerful tender locomotives became available in 1880, conversion of all engines to tank locomotives began. The driver's cab was now closed all around and got a coal bunker on the back. Due to the resulting greatly increased overhang, a fixed trailing axle was installed, which means that the locomotives now had a 0-4-2 wheel arrangement. The water tanks were now on the side of the boiler, the latter also being new.

These conversions increased the service weight from 27 to 41.2 tonnes and by increasing the boiler pressure from 116 to 131 psi, the performance could also be improved. Despite the trailing axle, there was still a large overhang, which meant that weight transfer was still a problem and would repeatedly lead to derailments. Thus, the retirement took place around 1900, when the conversion of the last machines was only 14 years ago.

Variantas builtrebuilt as tank engine
General
Built1866-18681880-1886
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe, Grafenstaden
Axle config0-4-0 (Four-coupled) 0-4-2T 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length43 ft 9 9/16 in31 ft 0 1/16 in
Wheelbase8 ft 6 3/8 in14 ft 1 5/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 3/8 in14 ft 1 5/16 in
Empty weight52,470 lbs71,871 lbs
Service weight59,525 lbs90,830 lbs
Adhesive weight59,525 lbs
Axle load29,762 lbs
Water capacity1,498 us gal1,004 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)3,307 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power235 hp (175 kW)221 hp (165 kW)
Optimal speed14 mph12 mph
Top speed39 mph
Starting effort10,501 lbf11,813 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter66.1 in
Boiler pressure116 psi130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/8 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area12.5 sq ft
Firebox area66.6 sq ft57.5 sq ft
Tube heating area873.1 sq ft879.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area939.7 sq ft937.4 sq ft
Total heating area939.7 sq ft937.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian IV b
Germany | 1873 | 20 produced
Factory photo of one of the machines after the conversion
Factory photo of one of the machines after the conversion

Since the locomotives from the early days were no longer powerful enough, newer ones with an 2-4-0 wheel arrangement were procured from Maffei in Munich. 20 of these were delivered from 1873 and were based on the Bavarian locomotives. It is noteworthy that from 1888 all of them were converted to tank locomotives with an 2-4-2T wheel arrangement and remained in use as such.

In order to increase the output, following the trend of the time, the grate area was enlarged without significantly increasing the dimensions of the boiler. A further increase in power was achieved through a higher boiler pressure, which had become possible due to new materials and production techniques. The locomotives had an external frame and external cylinders, but internal Stephenson-type valve gear. Braking, as was usual at the time, was done with mechanical transmission only to the wheels of the locomotive.

After a few years of operation, it became apparent that the adhesive weight was too low and the running characteristics with the long rear overhang were no longer up to date. Therefore, the locomotives were equipped with a trailing axle and turned into tank locomotives, while most parts remained the same. Because the weight of the boiler feed water was now acting on the couple axles, the adhesive weight increased. In addition, more powerful boilers of the Baden type were used later and the brakes were replaced with a modern air brake system of the Westinghouse type.

The conversion was completed on all locomotives in 1892 and extended their operating life beyond what the original tender locomotives would have achieved. The decommissioning began in 1901, the last locomotive was taken out of service in 1910.

Variantas builtrebuilt tank locomotive
General
Built1873-18741888-1892
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config2-4-0 (Porter) 2-4-2T (Columbia) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length46 ft 11 in34 ft 4 11/16 in
Wheelbase11 ft 2 1/16 in17 ft 0 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 2 1/16 in
Empty weight63,493 lbs
Service weight72,752 lbs118,829 lbs
Adhesive weight48,502 lbs60,407 lbs
Axle load24,251 lbs30,203 lbs
Water capacity1,783 us gal1,585 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal6,614 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power369 hp (275 kW)
Optimal speed20 mph
Top speed37 mph
Starting effort11,848 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter65.9 in
Boiler pressure130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/8 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area16.5 sq ft
Firebox area73.7 sq ft
Tube heating area1,093.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,166.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,166.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
tank locomotive
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian VIII a
Germany | 1875 | 12 produced
Hanomag works photo
Hanomag works photo
General
Built1875
ManufacturerHanomag
Axle config0-8-0 (Eight-coupled) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length51 ft 5 3/8 in
Total wheelbase33 ft 3 13/16 in
Empty weight100,531 lbs
Service weight115,522 lbs
Adhesive weight115,522 lbs
Axle load28,440 lbs
Water capacity3,038 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power603 hp (450 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed28 mph
Starting effort25,138 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure130 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 7/8 x 25 in
Boiler
Grate area21.5 sq ft
Firebox area88.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,865.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,953.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,953.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 08 2023
Badenian II a
Germany | 1888 | 24 produced
II a on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
II a on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

When the Crampton locomotives used for express trains on the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways were no longer state of the art, a new express locomotive was developed from the class III passenger locomotives.

Special features of the II a were the Belpaire firebox and an outer plate frame. The power was transmitted via Hall cranks to the wheel sets located within the frame. Because the cylinders were located in front of the pivot of the lead bogie, the running smoothness was not entirely convincing. Especially under full load, the overhanging masses of the cylinders generated unpleasant vibrations.

Despite this, the engine performed well and was used on the international trains that traversed the Baden region. The locomotives were able to pull a 220-tonne train with 16 wagons on the flat at up to 84 km/h and thus still reached 60 km/h on a gradient of 0.5 percent. At 1.25 percent, 150 tonnes could still be pulled at 50 km/h.

Another delivery of ten locomotives in 1891 saw the need to lengthen the boiler tubes and increase the diameter of the cylinders to 457 mm. To improve the running characteristics, the wheel base of the bogie was also increased from 1,400 to 2,000 mm.

After the founding of the Reichsbahn, the II a met the same fate as other older Länderbahn locomotives. Of the 24 units built, ten were still included in the renumbering plan as ckass 3673. Eventually all were retired by 1925.

Variant1888 variant1891 variant
General
Built1888-18901891
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length50 ft 5 7/8 in
Wheelbase18 ft 0 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 0 7/8 in
Total wheelbase38 ft 0 11/16 in
Empty weight92,594 lbs
Service weight101,413 lbs103,176 lbs
Adhesive weight61,729 lbs64,375 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs32,187 lbs
Water capacity3,038 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power503 hp (375 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph25 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort11,856 lbf13,085 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73.2 in
Boiler pressure145 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 1/8 x 24 intwo, 18 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area19.7 sq ft
Firebox area89.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,190.5 sq ft1,217.4 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,279.8 sq ft1,306.7 sq ft
Total heating area1,279.8 sq ft1,306.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
Badenian II c
Germany | 1892 | 35 produced
Die Lokomotive, December 1904

The class II c designated express locomotives which, contrary to usual practice, had been developed based on the English practice. They were the first locomotives in Germany to be certified for a maximum operational speed of 110 km/h. The clearest distinguishing feature was the inside plate frame with wheel housings, which partially covered the 2,100 mm large coupled wheels and started at the level of the very low running board. In addition, the cylinders were on the inside, which was very rare in Germany for two-cylinder steam locomotives.

Due to the long wheelbase of the bogie and the low-lying boiler, the running characteristics were very good, so that the locomotives even ran smoothly at 120 km/h during test drives. The large wheels also helped maintain higher speeds for longer periods, and thus the 110 km/h certification was granted.

The development and production of the first series models took place at Grafenstaden in Alsace, but further vehicles followed from the Karlsruhe Engineering Society and the Saxon Machine Factory Hartmann. A total of 35 pieces were made between 1892 and 1900.

In order to reduce the effort required at high speeds, two modifications were made to the last five machines, as would also be found on later locomotives. One was a wind-cutter cab, i.e. the front wall of the cab was divided vertically in two and both halves were pulled back at a sharp angle in a V-shape. The other adjustment was an aerodynamically clad smokebox door. Instead of being conical like other German express locomotives from the beginning of the century, the tip was pulled down almost to the bottom of the boiler and the fairing formed a transition to the cylinders. Along with these modifications came an increase in boiler pressure from 12 to 13 bar.

Despite their good running characteristics, the tractive power of the locomotives was soon no longer sufficient for lighter express trains, as these could pull a maximum of 260 tons at top speed. In addition, higher demands were now placed on the acceleration of trains, which gradually reduced them to lower services. After the First World War, nine examples came to France and were operated there by the État state railway as class 220.9. In the period that followed, the number of locomotives remaining in Germany decreased, which meant that the planned takeover of the last machines by the Reichsbahn and re-designation to the class 3673 did not occur.

Variantvariant 1892variant 1900
General
Built1892-18991900
ManufacturerGrafenstaden, MBG Karlsruhe, Hartmann
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length55 ft 11 7/16 in
Wheelbase22 ft 5 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 4 3/8 in
Empty weight92,815 lbs94,799 lbs
Service weight100,641 lbs102,868 lbs
Adhesive weight65,257 lbs68,123 lbs
Axle load32,628 lbs34,304 lbs
Water capacity4,095 us gal4,042 us gal
Fuel capacity9,921 lbs (coal)11,023 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power730 hp (544 kW)
Estimated power697 hp (520 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph31 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort13,859 lbf15,014 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter82.7 in
Boiler pressure174 psi188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 1/8 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area22.2 sq ft
Firebox area98.2 sq ft
Tube heating area1,028 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,126.1 sq ft
Total heating area1,126.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
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