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Diesel Multiple Units for Local Traffic[Inhalt]
Alstom Coradia LINT
DB AG classes 640, 648, 620, 622 and 623
Germany | 1999 | more than 1,000 produced
DB Regio LINT 27 in June 2011 in Siegen
DB Regio LINT 27 in June 2011 in Siegen
Hugh Llewelyn

The company Linke-Hofmann-Busch, which now belongs to Alstom, developed the LINT in the 1990s, which stands for “Leichter Innovativer Nahverkehrs-Triebwagen” (“Light Innovative Local Transport Railcar”). These are diesel railcars, which are available in four variants, each consisting of one to three car bodies. The variants are denoted by a number that indicates the approximate length in meters. The variants can be coupled to each other and enable the simultaneous operation of up to 17 units. Worth mentioning is the iLINT powered by hydrogen fuel cells, which will be described in a separate article.

The smallest variant is the LINT 27, which consists of only one four-axle car and operates as the class 640. Like all LINTs, it is powered by a horizontally installed six-cylinder from MTU, which here has an output of 315 kW and drives both axles of a bogie. In contrast to all other variants, however, the power is not transmitted mechanically but hydraulically. A special version is used on the Upper Ruhr Valley Railway, in which most of the seats have been exchanged for bicycle spaces and which is used in combination with larger LINTs.

The two-car LINT 41 is used as class 648 and, thanks to a central Jakobs bogie, only needs three bogies in total. It achieves the largest number of units and is also listed as class 1648 or 623 by some private operators. Optionally, this and the two larger variants can be ordered with a toilet, luggage compartment and ticket machine. The engines each have 315, 335 or 390 kW and allow a top speed of 120 or 140 km/h. The most powerful variant is used by the Bayerische Regiobahn, which is operated by Transdev GmbH.

vlexx  LINT 54 and LINT 81 in December 2018 in Rüsselsheim
vlexx LINT 54 and LINT 81 in December 2018 in Rüsselsheim
Matti Blume

The LINT 54 also consists of two cars, with each car having two bogies of its own. It carries the class number 622 or 1622. Normally, three of the four bogies are each driven by a 390 kW engine. Only the erixx version suffices with two engines and two powered bogies

The LINT 81 is offered as a three-car variant, which runs as class 620 and basically corresponds to the 54 model with an additional middle car. This has an additional drive system, which means that it has four engines and eight driven axles out of a total of twelve.

All four variants are used by DB Regio and several private operators. The area of application covers practically all of Germany, with a focus on the less electrified northern parts of the country. Common problems involve the engines, ranging from failed turbochargers to fires. There is also talk of irreparable design errors in the air conditioning systems, which prompted the erixx company to hand out woolen blankets to the passengers.

VariantLINT 27LINT 41LINT 54LINT 81
General
Builtsince 1999since 2011
ManufacturerAlstom
Axle configB-2 B-2-B B-2+B-B B-2+B-2+B-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats70129180300
Dimensions and Weights
Length89 ft 5 1/4 in137 ft 2 1/16 in178 ft 0 5/8 in265 ft 5 13/16 in
Wheelbase114 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 2 13/16 in8 ft 10 5/16 in6 ft 2 13/16 in
Empty weight90,389 lbs139,993 lbs216,053 lbs304,238 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulicdiesel-mechanic
Top speed75 mph87 mph
EngineMTU 6R 183 TD 13HMTU 6H 1800 R84P/R85L
Engine type6-cyl. diesel2x 6-cyl. diese13x 6-cyl. diesel4x 6-cyl. diesel
Fuel423 us gal (diesel)
Engine output422 hp (315 kW)845 hp (630 kW)1,569 hp (1,170 kW)2,092 hp (1,560 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
Alstom Coradia
last changed: 01/2023
British Rail first generation DMUs
later classes 100 to 131
Great Britain | 1956 | ca. 1,300 produced
Three-car 101680 on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway in July 2011
Three-car 101680 on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway in July 2011
mattbuck

In order to modernize passenger transport over short distances, British Railways approached the industry in 1954, which was to produce a large number of light diesel railcars. Since there was no standard design due to lack of time, several companies had a relatively free hand in the development and delivered different models, which, however, had many things in common.

All DMUs consisted of four-axle cars, which were usually coupled to form combinations of two to six vehicles. These combinations had only one cab at each end, there were only a few one-car vehicles with two cabs. The individual cars were either motorized with two diesel engines each, each of which drove the inner axle of a bogie, or unmotorized.

Most of the railcars were powered by British United Traction (BUT) diesel engines, each with 150 hp. This was a cooperation between AEC and Leyland, which also manufactured trolleybuses in addition to diesel engines for rail vehicles. The power was transmitted over a mechanical four-speed gearbox. Some classes had more powerful engines from BUT, Leyland or Rolls-Royce with up to 237 hp, some of which worked on a hydraulic gearbox. The maximum speed was 70 mph for all variants.

121032 “Bubble Car” operated by Arriva Trains Wales in June 2019 at Cardiff Queen Street
121032 “Bubble Car” operated by Arriva Trains Wales in June 2019 at Cardiff Queen Street
Hugh Llewelyn

A total of more than 3,400 cars came from a total of ten manufacturers. The most successful variant was Metropolitan Cammell's Class 101, which was used in combinations of two to four cars. Combinations of two cars were made up of either a power car and a driving trailer or two railcars and were then referred to as “Power Twins”. Metro-Cammell supplied nearly 700 Class 101, 102 and 111 cars.

More than 1,100 came from the British Railways' works in Derby. The largest numbers of these were produced of the two- to four-car class 108 and the two- to three-car class 116. The class 116 was one of the variants that were designed for suburban traffic and had doors in each row of seats, which in Great Britain was also known as the “Slam Door Train”. A further 400 examples came from the BR workshops in Swindon. This also included the class 124, which consisted of six cars each, four of which had two 231 hp engines and thus achieved good acceleration.

Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Company supplied just over 200 and Cravens just over 300 carriages. The Class 128 from Gloucester and the Class 129 from Cravens were parcel DMUs which had a parcel compartment without windows instead of a passenger compartment. While the 129 class had the standard 150 hp engines, the 128 class had two Leyland Albion engines, each with 231 hp

Class 128 parcel DMU in August 1982 at Manchester-Victoria
Class 128 parcel DMU in August 1982 at Manchester-Victoria
Hugh Llewelyn

Another notable number of more than 400 came from the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company. These consisted of 302 cars for the two- to four-car Class 104, Class 118 and Class 110, the latter with two Rolls-Royce engines of 180 hp. Smaller numbers came from Park Royal, Pressed Steel and D. Wickham & Co.

The large number and variety of classes ensured that the first generation diesel multiple units were used in all parts of the country. Production of the last pieces was already completed in 1963. In the 1980s, the Pacer and Sprinter railcars were developed, which were intended to completely replace the vehicles of the first generation. Since the Pacer was not quite convincing and the number of Sprinters was not quite sufficient, not all railcars of the first generation could be retired in the 1980s. Some examples of class 101 could not be retired until 2003, while the one-car vehicles of class 121 “Bubble Car” were in regular use until 2017.

Variant101 power car + trailer105 power + trailer + power112 power-twin121
General
Built1957-19631956-19591959-19601960-1961
ManufacturerGRC&W, Metro-Cammell, Park Royal, BRCW, Cravens, Derby, Wickham, Pressed Steel, SwindonCravensPressed Steel
Axle config1A-A1+2-2 1A-A1+2-2+1A-A1 1A-A1+1A-A1 1A-A1 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats11718811565
Dimensions and Weights
Length113 ft 12 in172 ft 6 1/2 in64 ft 6 in
Empty weight127,680 lbs184,800 lbs134,400 lbs82,880 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-mechanic
Top speed70 mph
EngineBUTRolls-Royce C8NFLHLeyland 1595
Engine type2x 6-cyl. diese14x 6-cyl. diesel2x 8-cyl. diesel2x 6-cyl. diese1
Engine output300 hp (224 kW)600 hp (447 kW)476 hp (355 kW)300 hp (224 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
suburban
local
last changed: 06/2022
British Rail Southern Region DEMUs
later 6S, 6L, 6B, 3H, 3D, 2H, later BR classes 201 to 207
Great Britain | 1957 | 87 produced
Class 201 No. 1006 in April 1986 at Hastings
Class 201 No. 1006 in April 1986 at Hastings
Lamberhurst

While most regional divisions of the British Railways procured diesel-mechanic multiple units from 1957, the Southern Region built diesel-electric multiple units. The English Electric 4SRKT with turbocharger and 600 hp was used as the engine. The nickname “Thumper” came about because of the exhaust sound of the big four-cylinder. Two- and three-car units had a total of one engine and six-car units had two engines. For faster passenger exchange, some cars had doors in each compartment. The 201 to 204 and 206 classes were retired between the late 1980s and early 1990s and the 205 and 207 classes remained in service until 2004.

Variant6S (201)3H (205)3D (207)
General
Built1957-19621962
ManufacturerEastleigh, AshfordEastleigh
Axle configB-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-2+2-B B-2+2-2 B-2+2-2+2-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length347 ft 10 in128 ft 0 1/4 in191 ft 5 5/8 in
Empty weight510,700 lbs194,000 lbs262,060 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-electric
Top speed75 mph
EngineEnglish Electric 4SRKT Mk.II
Engine type2x 4-cyl. diesel4-cyl. diesel
Engine output1,200 hp (895 kW)600 hp (447 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
EMU
suburban
local
last changed: 07/2023
British Rail Pacer
later classes 140 to 144
Great Britain | 1981 | 165 produced
142036 in June 2013 at Eccles
142036 in June 2013 at Eccles
Rept0n1x

When it became clear that the first generation DMUs had reached the end of their service life and that the development of a full-fledged successor would take a long time, the Pacer was developed as a cheap temporary solution. The body of the Leyland National bus was used and placed on a two-axle underframe intended for a high-speed freight car. These two- or three-car vehicles were designed for a maximum service life of 20 years. Since the Sprinters could not replace them, almost all Pacers were still in use in 2015. From the passengers they got the nickname “Nodding Donkeys”, as they had very uncomfortable suspension characteristics and a high noise level. In 2019 and 2020, almost all were phased out, mainly due to new accessibility requirements. In June 2021, the last Transport for Wales vehicles ran for the last time.

Variantas builtre-engined cummins
General
Built1981, 1984-1987
ManufacturerBritish Leyland, BREL, Derby, Hunslet-Barclay, Walter Alexander
Axle config1A+A1 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats94
Dimensions and Weights
Length101 ft 4 1/2 in
Wheelbase29 ft 6 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase29 ft 6 1/4 in
Empty weight116,704 lbs107,744 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-mechanicdiesel-hydraulic
Top speed75 mph
EngineLeyland TL11Cummins LTA10-R
Engine type2x 6-cyl. diese1
Engine output410 hp (306 kW)450 hp (336 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
last changed: 08/2023
British Rail Sprinter
later classes 150, 151, 153, 155, 156, 158 and 159
Great Britain | 1984 | 567 produced
150203 in Manchester-Victoria
150203 in Manchester-Victoria
Jim

In addition to the Pacers, the Sprinters were developed to replace the first-generation diesel multiple units. The name summarizes a family of several vehicles which were built between 1984 and 1993 by different manufacturers. They were designed for slightly longer distances than the Pacers and, in contrast to these, had four axles in bogies, which made for better driving comfort. The name was intended to draw public attention to the better running performance compared to the first generation.

Most variants had a Cummins diesel and a Voith T 211 r hydraulic transmission per car. The transmissions are characterized by the fact that they work as a torque converter up to nearly two-thirds of the top speed and the rated power can be called up regardless of the speed. Only in the upper speed range does it switch to more economical clutch operation, with the engine speed being proportional to the running speed. With the performance thus achieved, British Railways were able to set up new, faster timetables.

East Midland Trains 156414 in September 2009 in Peterborough
East Midland Trains 156414 in September 2009 in Peterborough
Peter Skuce

The first variant of the Sprinter was the British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL) class 150, which prevailed against the Metro-Cammell class 151. They were created for commuter traffic on shorter routes and therefore have double doors. The top speed of 75 mph allows for good acceleration. After the two prototypes of the class 150/0, 50 production vehicles of the class 150/1 were built, each of which consisted of two cars, had five seats per row and had no gangways at the ends. In the 85 class 150/2 vehicles, there are only four seats per row and gangways.

From 1987, 42 British Leyland 155 class “Super Sprinters”, also two-car units, followed. Manufacturing methods used in the buses from this company were used in the construction of the car bodies. A total of 35 of these vehicles were converted into 70 class 153 vehicles by Hunslet-Barclay in 1991 and 1992 by separating the cars and retrofitting each with a second driver's cab. These were intended for routes with low passenger volume. The 114 two-car class 156 trains from Metro-Cammell, which basically correspond to the Class 155, were also referred to as “Super Sprinters”.

South West Trains 159011 in April 2010 at Salisbury
South West Trains 159011 in April 2010 at Salisbury
mattbuck

For longer distances, the class 158 “Express Sprinter” was built from 1989, which has a higher engine power and can reach a speed of 90 mph or 145 km/h. In contrast to all previous Sprinters, it also has air conditioning. There were 133 units with Cummins engines and 47 with Perkins engines. 17 of the units have an additional center car, which is also powered. The conversion of 22 Class 158 units in 1993 resulted in the three-car class 159/0 “South Western Turbo”, which also has a first class. Another seven followed in 2007, becoming the class 159/1.

The Sprinters brought many improvements, especially with their running performance, although the lack of air conditioning in most variants became a point of criticism quite early on. Thanks to their automatic BSI couplings, all Sprinters can not only be coupled to each other, but also together with the Pacer and the Turbostar. The class 150 units, which were used intensively in commuter transport, in particular, wore out quickly. Some were refurbished, others were replaced with new Turbostar and Coradia trains at the beginning of the millennium. The better-serviced class 158 and 159 trains are also being replaced by the new generation of multiple units since around 2020.

Variant150153156158 three-car
General
Built1984-19871991-19921987-19891989-1992
ManufacturerBRELHunslet-BarclayMetro-CammellBREL
Axle config2-B+B-2 2-B 2-B+B-2 2-B+2-B+B-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats14766163207
Dimensions and Weights
Length131 ft 7 1/2 in76 ft 1 11/16 in151 ft 1 3/8 in228 ft 5 5/16 in
Wheelbase55 ft61 ft
Fixed wheelbase8 ft 6 in
Empty weight157,630 lbs90,720 lbs157,630 lbs250,005 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed75 mph90 mph
EngineCummins NT855R5Cummins NTA855R1 oder Perkins 2006-TWH
Engine type2x 6-cyl. diese16-cyl. diesel2x 6-cyl. diese13x 6-cyl. diesel
Engine output570 hp (425 kW)286 hp (213 kW)570 hp (425 kW)1,050 hp (783 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
regional
last changed: 03/2023
Calabro Lucane M4
Italy | 1988 | 45 produced
M4.406 of the Ferrovie della Calabria in Cosenza
M4.406 of the Ferrovie della Calabria in Cosenza
Vittorio Lascala / ShayParkman
VariantM4.300M4.350M4.350c
General
Built1988-2001
ManufacturerFIAT, Ferrosud
Axle configB-B B-2+2-B B-B 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats5410452
Dimensions and Weights
Length59 ft 7 3/8 in119 ft 2 11/16 in59 ft 7 3/8 in
Wheelbase44 ft 11 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 10 11/16 in
Empty weight77,162 lbs132,277 lbs80,469 lbs
Adhesive weight77,162 lbs80,469 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-mechanic
Top speed62 mph
EngineIveco 8217
Engine type2x 6-cyl. diese1
Engine output553 hp (412 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
cog railway
last changed: 09 2023
Danish State Railways MO
Denmark | 1935 | 139 produced
MO 1805 with two passenger carriages and a second MO in July 1970 at Veksø
MO 1805 with two passenger carriages and a second MO in July 1970 at Veksø
Kurt Rasmussen
VariantMO (I) and MO (II)MO (III)MO (IV)MO (V)
General
Built193519361938-19401951-1958
ManufacturerBurmeister & WainFrichs
Axle config2-B 3-B 2-B 3-B
Seats5237
Dimensions and Weights
Length68 ft 8 5/16 in
Wheelbase56 ft 8 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase10 ft 6 in
Service weight122,356 lbs128,529 lbs143,300 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-electric
Top speed75 mph
EngineBurmeister & Wains 613,5VL22 DFrichs 6185CA
Engine type2x 6-cyl. diese1
Engine output493 hp (368 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
regional
last changed: 09 2023
German Federal Railway class 628
Germany | 1974 | 479 produced
Class 628<sup>4</sup> in July 2013 in Markt Indersdorf
Class 6284 in July 2013 in Markt Indersdorf
Flummi-2011

Larger multiple units consisting of two four-axle cars were developed as successors to the railbuses on branch lines. There are several sub-variants, with most vehicles having only one engine in one of the two cars. They were used all over Germany, with the variants with two engines being used more in mountainous regions. Since the turn of the millennium, they have been increasingly replaced by more modern vehicles that have better acceleration and air conditioning. Today, most of the remaining vehicles are used by the Südostbayernbahn in Lower and Upper Bavaria.

Variant6280628262846289, 6290
General
Built1974-19751986-19891992-19961994-1995
ManufacturerDÜWAG, Waggon-Union, AEG, LHB, MBB
Axle configB-2+2-B 2-B+2-2 2-B+B-2 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats136143146144
Dimensions and Weights
Length145 ft 6 1/16 in148 ft 11 3/8 in152 ft 2 3/4 in
Service weight141,096 lbs146,828 lbs154,103 lbs185,188 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed75 mph87 mph
EngineMAN D 3256 BTXUE oder KHD F12 L 413Daimler-Benz OM 444 AMTU 12 V 183 TD 12
Engine type2x V12 dieselV12 diesel2x V12 diesel
Fuel357 us gal (diesel)317 us gal (diesel)320 us gal (diesel)639 us gal (diesel)
Engine output571 hp (426 kW)550 hp (410 kW)650 hp (485 kW)1,301 hp (970 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
last changed: 02/2023
German Reichsbahn VT 137 Stettin type
German Federal Railway VT 455 and German Reichsbahn class 197
Germany | 1940 | 16 produced
The only preserved VT 137 367 in 2002 in Dresden
The only preserved VT 137 367 in 2002 in Dresden
Rainer Haufe

These vehicles were a series of 16 diesel powered railcars designed for high speed local service. They were given the numbers 137 326 to 331 and 137 367 to 376 by the Reichsbahn. Since they were only delivered after the outbreak of war, they were no longer used as planned in the Szczecin area. In order to keep up with the time, the requirements stipulated that the entire propulsion technology be housed under the floor and that the power be transmitted with a hydrodynamic transmission. Therefore, various manufacturers developed boxer engines, all of which had the same dimensions of the engine mounts. Each railcar consisted of two parts, each of which had an engine which acted on the front axle of the front bogie

During the war only test runs took place, whereby the engine power turned out to be insufficient. This problem could be solved by providing the engines with turbochargers and thus increasing the output from 275 to 400 hp each.

Nine railcars survived the war and came to both German railways. At the Bundesbahn they were designated VT 455 and received new transmissions from Voith. In 1960 they were modernized and, in addition to new, weaker engines, also received a new interior design. They were decommissioned in 1969. The preserved vehicles were used by the Reichsbahn in the areas of Berlin, Stendal and Dresden. Although a few vehicles with damage in the propulsion system were converted to trailers at the beginning of the sixties, they were withdrawn from service by 1967. Only one survived longer and was assigned to the class 197.

VariantDeutz / DWKMAN / Daimler-Benz
General
Built1940-1941
ManufacturerWUMAG
Axle config 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats130
Dimensions and Weights
Length133 ft 5 15/16 in
Wheelbase54 ft 11 7/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 5 13/16 in
Total wheelbase119 ft 11 in
Empty weight173,184 lbs171,857 lbs
Service weight207,466 lbs206,028 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed56 mph
EngineDeutz A 12 M oder DWK 12V19MAN W12V13/19 oder Daimler-Benz MB 807
Engine type2x 12-cyl. boxer diesel or V12 diesel2x V12 diesel
Engine output536 hp (400 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
regional
last changed: 02/2022
Integral Verkehrstechnik S5D95
Germany | 1998 | 17 produced
VT112 “Stadt Miesbach” in September 2020 in Lenggries
VT112 “Stadt Miesbach” in September 2020 in Lenggries
Renardo la vulpo
General
Built1998
ManufacturerIntegral Verkehrstechnik AG
Axle configA-A-1-1-1-A 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Seats164
Dimensions and Weights
Length175 ft 3 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase0 ft 0 in
Empty weight163,142 lbs
Service weight186,290 lbs
Power
Power sourcediesel-hydraulic
Top speed87 mph
Starting effort25,179 lbf
EngineMAN D2876 LUH
Engine type3x 6-cyl. diesel
Engine output1,207 hp (900 kW)
Power Plant
Boiler
Calculated Values
DMU
local
regional
last changed: 08 2023
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