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Tender Locomotives 2-8-2 “Mikado”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 1'D1'
Canadian National class S-1
Canada | 1913 | 327 produced
No. 3254 in June 2011 in “Steamtown” Scranton, Pennsylvania
No. 3254 in June 2011 in “Steamtown” Scranton, Pennsylvania
Chris Light

The S-1 was the standard freight locomotive of all Canadian National predecessors from 1913 onwards. It was a Mikado with 63-inch drivers and 27 by 30-inch cylinders. The subclasses S-1-a to e were used by the Canadian Government Railways and were only built by Canadian manufacturers. The Grand Trunk operated classes S-1-f to h, which also came from US manufacturers. After these batches were built until 1918, it was not until 1926 that the CN had two more S-1-j built. Three locomotives were preserved, of which only 3254 was operational until 2012. The 3377 had before been dismantled to provide spare parts for 3254.

VariantS-1-a and bS-1-c and eS-1-f
General
Built1913-1926
ManufacturerCanadian Locomotive Co., Montreal Locomotive Works, ALCO, Baldwin, Canadian National
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length78 ft 5 in
Wheelbase35 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 6 in
Service weight276,000 lbs272,100 lbs
Adhesive weight205,000 lbs204,700 lbs
Total weight453,100 lbs449,200 lbs
Axle load51,250 lbs51,175 lbs
Water capacity7,500 us gal
Fuel capacity28,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,275 hp (1,696 kW)2,300 hp (1,715 kW)
Optimal speed28 mph
Starting effort51,637 lbf53,113 lbf51,637 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure175 psi180 psi175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 27 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area56.5 sq ft
Firebox area248.8 sq ft289 sq ft
Tube heating area3,370.2 sq ft3,112.2 sq ft3,116 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,619 sq ft3,361 sq ft3,405 sq ft
Superheater area769 sq ft804 sq ft
Total heating area4,388 sq ft4,130 sq ft4,209 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 11/2023
China Railway class JS
China | 1957 | 1,916 produced
JS 8167 in action at the Sandaoling coal mine in December 2017
JS 8167 in action at the Sandaoling coal mine in December 2017
Georg Trüb / https://railpictures.net/photo/641941

A few years after the revolution, China Railway developed a Mikado that would be built in large numbers. The chassis of the JF1 class, which had been built since 1918, was used as the basis. It received a modern boiler and was also adapted to current requirements in other areas. The new class was called JS or “Jiàn Shè”, which roughly means “construction”.

With a coupling wheel diameter of only 1,370 mm, a high level of traction could be achieved. As is usual for China, the tender was chosen to be large with a coal supply of 17 tonnes. The design came from Dalian, but the production was subcontracted to several plants.

The first 1,135 units were built between 1957 and 1965. Another production only started in 1981, which included almost 800 more locomotives until 1988. More than half of them belonged to a “B” variant, which received some improvements. A special feature was a locomotive that was sold new in 1989 to the Boone and Scenic Valley Railroad in Iowa.

General
Built1957-1965, 1981-1988
ManufacturerDalian, Qishuyan, Datong, Beijing
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase33 ft 5 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase67 ft 2 11/16 in
Empty weight201,282 lbs
Service weight229,942 lbs
Adhesive weight175,885 lbs
Total weight415,130 lbs
Axle load44,092 lbs
Water capacity9,246 us gal
Fuel capacity37,479 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power2,266 hp (1,690 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph
Top speed53 mph
Starting effort49,983 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.9 in
Boiler pressure218 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 22 13/16 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area55 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,944.7 sq ft
Superheater area959.4 sq ft
Total heating area2,904.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 03/2023
China Railway class SY
China | 1960 | 1,820 produced
SY 1770 in February 2014 in front of one of the last regular steam hauled passenger trains
SY 1770 in February 2014 in front of one of the last regular steam hauled passenger trains
John Peters

These Mikados were based on the JF6 and were developed for industrial tasks. With a construction period up to 1999, they were the last large series-built steam locomotives in the world. There are reports that some locomotives were still in use in 2016 in open-pit mines or in heavy industry companies. Accordingly, an extraordinarily large number have survived to this day. Between 1989 and 1991 three US tourist railways ordered brand new locomotives of this type, one of which was lost at sea. One machine was also delivered to South Korea in 1994.

General
Built1960-1999
ManufacturerTangshan
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length70 ft 10 3/8 in
Wheelbase31 ft 3 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase14 ft 5 5/8 in
Service weight194,007 lbs
Adhesive weight154,323 lbs
Total weight313,056 lbs
Axle load38,581 lbs
Water capacity6,604 us gal
Fuel capacity20,944 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,479 hp (1,103 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph
Top speed50 mph
Starting effort38,398 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter53.9 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 7/8 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area48.4 sq ft
Firebox area187.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,664.1 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,851.4 sq ft
Superheater area460.7 sq ft
Total heating area2,312.1 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
Güterzug,Rangierlok
last changed: 03/2023
Denver & Rio Grande Western class K-27
originally class 125
United States | 1903 | 15 produced
No. 463 in July 2016 on the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad
No. 463 in July 2016 on the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad
Chris Light

The K-27 class was the last compound locomotive built for D&RGW. The “K” stood for “Mikado” and the number for starting tractive effort of 27,000 pounds. Its engine had four cylinders and was of the Vauclain type, but was replaced by a simple two-cylinder engine just four years after delivery. As with other narrow-gauge locomotives of the D&RGW, the axles were in an outer frame. The nickname “Mudhen” came about because with the original engine they often derailed. Most K-27s were scrapped in the fifties and the last two built still exist today. The No. 463 runs on the Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad and the No. 464 is owned by the Huckleberry Railroad and last ran in 2019.

Variantas builtrebuilt simplesuperheated
General
Built19031907-19111924
ManufacturerBaldwinD&RGW
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge3 ft 0 in (Three feet)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 5 in
Total wheelbase51 ft 0 1/2 in
Service weight125,500 lbs136,850 lbs140,250 lbs
Adhesive weight100,000 lbs104,255 lbs108,300 lbs
Total weight197,500 lbs220,150 lbs223,550 lbs
Axle load26,300 lbs27,475 lbs27,969 lbs
Water capacity3,500 us gal4,100 us gal
Fuel capacity17,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power900 hp (671 kW)1,100 hp (820 kW)
Optimal speed24 mph21 mph26 mph
Starting effort23,424 lbf27,022 lbf
with start valve28,109 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter40 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 x 22 in
and LP: 22 x 22 in
two, 17 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area30.2 sq ft
Firebox area106 sq ft113 sq ft
Tube heating area2,027 sq ft1,413 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,133 sq ft1,526 sq ft
Superheater area407 sq ft
Total heating area2,133 sq ft1,933 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
Vauclain compound
last changed: 08/2023
Denver & Rio Grande Western class 189
later class K-36
United States | 1925 | 10 produced
No. 486 in June 1947 in Alamosa, Colorado
No. 486 in June 1947 in Alamosa, Colorado
Frank Peterson / collection Taylor Rush

As the penultimate series of steam locomotives for the three-foot gauge, the D&RGW procured the K-36 from Baldwin, ten of which were delivered in 1925. The “K” in the designation stood for the Mikado design, the number for the tractive force in thousands of pounds. As with its predecessors, the coupling wheels were mounted inside the outer frame and the coupling and connecting rods, valve gear and cylinders were attached outside the frame. The balancing weights were not integrated into the wheels either, but mounted on the outside.

The K-36 was initially used only in front of freight trains. In 1937, three examples were fitted with steam heating and communication lines for use in front of passenger trains. Three more followed in 1945, leading to more than half being equipped accordingly. One locomotive was so badly damaged in an accident on the turntable in 1955 that it could only be used as a spare parts donor. The other nine were removed from active service with D&RGW between 1962 and 1970.

No. 481 IN October 2014 in Silverton, Colorado
No. 481 IN October 2014 in Silverton, Colorado
Wayne77

It is unusual for a steam locomotive from the 1920s that all nine engines which were not destroyed in an accident are still preserved and eight of them are still operational. Five of these are now owned by the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad, four of which are in regular service. The other four are now owned by the Durango and Silverton and are also used regularly. One of each of the two operators was converted to oil firing around 2020.

General
Built1925
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge3 ft 0 in (Three feet)
Dimensions and Weights
Length67 ft 5 3/8 in
Wheelbase28 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 3 in
Total wheelbase58 ft 8 in
Service weight187,100 lbs
Adhesive weight143,850 lbs
Total weight286,600 lbs
Axle load36,065 lbs
Water capacity5,000 us gal
Fuel capacity18,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,410 hp (1,051 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph
Starting effort36,164 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter44 in
Boiler pressure195 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area40.3 sq ft
Firebox area145 sq ft
Tube heating area1,974 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,119 sq ft
Superheater area575 sq ft
Total heating area2,694 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
passenger
narrow gauge
last changed: 07/2022
German Reichsbahn class 1910
Germany | 1940 | only one produced
Henschel works photo of 19 1001
Henschel works photo of 19 1001
von Rudolf Kreutzer / Eisenbahnstiftung Joachim Schmidt

As the speed of steam locomotives increased, the moving masses of the engine became an ever greater problem. Although this could be partially compensated for with larger and larger driving wheels, the practical limits were reached with a wheel diameter of 2,300 mm. Regular operation could no longer be achieved above a speed of 400revolutions per minute, which was achieved with the locomotives of the classes 05 and 61 at around 175 km/h.

The steam motor, which works in a similar way to a piston engine, was seen as a possible way out. Since this had been developed into a compact design in the mid-1930s, the idea arose to develop a steam locomotive like the modern electric locomotives of that time with individual axle drive. Apart from the motors, the locomotive was created according to the same pattern as other express locomotives, since the focus was initially on the steam engines and no further experiments were wanted. The four powered axles each received a steam motor, which was mounted alternately on the right and left outside the wheels. These each had two cylinders arranged in V shape with a 90 degree angle to each other. Since significantly higher rotational speeds were possible here than with conventional steam locomotives, the wheels were designed with an exceptionally small diameter of 1,250 mm.

In order to avoid the development of a new boiler, the boiler of the class 44 freight locomotive was used. This was one of the first mass-produced locomotives with a pressure of 20 bars and promised good performance. At the projected speeds, a streamlined fairing was mandatory, and the fairing of the 0110 didn't need too many adjustments to be used on the 19 1001.

After the somewhat delayed delivery, extensive test runs took place, but due to the war, these mostly took place at speeds below 100 km/h. Despite this, some high-speed braking tests were undertaken, reaching speeds of up to 186 km/h. Although the axles reached almost 800 revolutions per minute, the running smoothness remained in a very good range due to the low moving masses. The disadvantage that turned out to be that the drive axles were not coupled to each other and individual axles tended to slip. On a trip with a heavy express train, the locomotive once even stopped on an incline.

In times of war, no further attention was paid to further development and the single locomotive was used in passenger service from the beginning of 1943. During a shutdown due to damage, it was severely damaged in a bomb attack in October 1944 and was no longer used. After the end of the war, road number 19 1001 was taken to the USA together with class 52 with a condensing tender in order to be able to examine the latest German developments there. The Bundesbahn subsequently decided not to buy them back, because even the network, which was still in a poor condition, could not use a single unit that was expensive to maintain for these speeds.

General
Built1940
ManufacturerHenschel
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length78 ft 0 in
Wheelbase37 ft 0 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase63 ft 7 3/8 in
Service weight240,745 lbs
Adhesive weight164,465 lbs
Axle load41,667 lbs
Water capacity9,840 us gal
Power
Power sourcesteam motor
Top speed109 mph
Engine output1,676 hp (1,250 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.2 in
Boiler pressure290 psi
Cylinderseight, 11 13/16 x 11 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area49 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,579.8 sq ft
Superheater area1,076.4 sq ft
Total heating area3,656.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
steam motor
prototype
last changed: 01/2022
German Reichsbahn class 22
Rebuilt from... DR class 39
Germany | 1958 | 85 produced
22 032 around 1964 with a double-deck articulated train
22 032 around 1964 with a double-deck articulated train
Werner Huhle
General
Built1958-1962
ManufacturerRAW Meiningen
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length77 ft 9 1/16 in
Wheelbase39 ft 10 3/8 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 8 1/4 in
Total wheelbase65 ft 10 3/16 in
Empty weight212,525 lbs
Service weight236,997 lbs
Adhesive weight163,142 lbs
Total weight397,713 lbs
Axle load41,226 lbs
Water capacity8,454 us gal
Fuel capacity22,046 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,670 hp (1,245 kW)
Optimal speed23 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort46,774 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68.9 in
Boiler pressure232 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 20 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area45.5 sq ft
Firebox area229.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,991.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,220.6 sq ft
Superheater area902 sq ft
Total heating area3,122.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
rebuilt
last changed: 08 2023
German Reichsbahn class 39
Prussian P 10
Germany | 1922 | 260 produced
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, April 1923

The last passenger locomotive that was still designed by the Prussian State Railways was to be able to pull heavy express and passenger trains on low mountain ranges without double-heading. The drawings were made as early as 1919 and represented the most powerful passenger locomotive of all Länderbahnen. They were put into service by the Reichsbahn and they soon became the class 39.

Like the G 12, the P 10 also got a bar frame and a Belpaire firebox. This had a trapezoidal floor plan, as it was wider at the back than the frame and lay between the coupled wheels at the front. The three cylinders each had their own valve gear, resulting in double eccentric rods on the left side. The second coupled axle was driven, but the valve gear was actuated by the third.

Sectional drawing with dimensions
Sectional drawing with dimensions
Die Lokomotive, December 1923

In order to achieve sufficient running properties for the top speed of 110 km/h, the first coupled axle could be moved laterally by 35 mm and was connected to the leading axle to form a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie. The second coupled axle had weakened wheel flanges, the third could be moved by 25 mm and the fourth was fixed. Lateral play on the trailing axle was 100 mm.

The locomotives could pull 780-tonne express trains on the level or 825 tonnes at 30 km/h at one percent. However, their field of application was restricted by the fact that the axle load was more than 19 tonnes, contrary to the original plans. As a result, they could only be used on certain main routes and many locomotives had to be parked for some amount of time after their delivery. In addition, the firebox often struggled with the air supply, so that the boiler's performance could not be fully utilized.

On the Bundesbahn, the tenders were replaced with newer 2'2' T 34s with a coal capacity of ten tonnes. In order to solve the problems with the air supply, the blast pipe on 39 119 was modified. This increased boiler output by 42 percent, giving steam production of 18 tonnes per hour and a drawbar power of 2,000 hp. It is unclear whether more were rebuilt, this could possibly have affected 54 machines. They were decommissioned by 1967. The Reichsbahn reconstructed it as class 22, which received a completely new boiler.

General
Built1922-1927
ManufacturerBorsig
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length75 ft 1 3/16 in
Wheelbase38 ft 0 11/16 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 1 1/2 in
Empty weight221,344 lbs
Service weight243,390 lbs
Adhesive weight166,890 lbs
Total weight386,911 lbs
Axle load42,770 lbs
Water capacity8,321 us gal
Fuel capacity15,432 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,598 hp (1,192 kW)
Optimal speed25 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort40,930 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter68.9 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylindersthree, 20 1/2 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area43.8 sq ft
Firebox area188.5 sq ft
Tube heating area2,159.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,348.3 sq ft
Superheater area882.6 sq ft
Total heating area3,230.9 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
last changed: 01/2023
German Reichsbahn class 41
Polish State Railways Ot1
Germany | 1937 | 366 produced
41 1231 in April 2016 in the traditional depot in Stassfurt
41 1231 in April 2016 in the traditional depot in Stassfurt
Rainer Haufe

The wheel arrangement 2-8-2 was chosen for fast freight trains in order to be able to achieve the required power with an axle load of 18 tonnes. With a driving wheel diameter of 1,600 mm, 90 km/h could be achieved and the axle load of the driving wheels could be changed to 20 tonnes by switching the position of bolts. The boiler pressure was initially 20 bars, but had to be reduced to 16 bars because of the problems with the St 47 K alloy. After the war, the Reichsbahn and the Bundesbahn fitted their class 41 locomotives with new boilers. They were in use in the GDR until 1988.

Variantas builtreduced boiler pressurerebuilt Bundesbahnrebuilt Reichsbahn
General
Built1937-19411957-19611959-1960
ManufacturerBMAG, Borsig, Esslingen, Henschel, Jung, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, O&K, SchichauRAW Zwickau, RAW Karl-Marx-Stadt
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length78 ft 5 1/8 in
Wheelbase39 ft 6 7/16 in
Fixed wheelbase18 ft 2 1/2 in
Total wheelbase66 ft 2 5/16 in
Empty weight204,148 lbs
Service weight224,651 lbs241,692 lbs227,517 lbs
Adhesive weight154,323 lbs171,475 lbs173,724 lbs
Total weight388,234 lbs365,967 lbs391,100 lbs
Axle load40,124 lbs42,869 lbs43,431 lbs
Water capacity8,982 us gal
Fuel capacity22,046 lbs (coal)3,170 us gal (oil)22,046 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,873 hp (1,397 kW)1,949 hp (1,453 kW)1,923 hp (1,434 kW)
Estimated power2,179 hp (1,625 kW)
Optimal speed30 mph32 mph33 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort46,504 lbf37,207 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure290 psi232 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 1/2 x 28 3/8 in
Boiler
Grate area41.9 sq ft41.7 sq ft45.5 sq ft
Firebox area171.1 sq ft228.4 sq ft229.3 sq ft
Tube heating area2,015.5 sq ft1,682.6 sq ft1,991.3 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,186.7 sq ft1,911 sq ft2,220.6 sq ft
Superheater area777.4 sq ft1,030.9 sq ft902 sq ft
Total heating area2,964.1 sq ft2,941.9 sq ft3,122.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 02/2023
East Broad Top No. 12
United States | 1911 | only one produced
In June 1961 in Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania
In June 1961 in Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania
collection Taylor Rush

The East Broad Top operated six Mikados, all of which survive to this day. The oldest of these is No. 12, which was christened “Millie”. Like her newer sisters, she had 48-inch diameter drivers, but was lighter and had smaller cylinders. When the EBT was reopened in 1960 as a complete heritage railway with all its equipment, number 12 remained in service with three of her sisters until she had to be retired in 2000 due to wear and tear. After the railroad had reopened in 2020 under new ownership, the locomotive remains inoperable and it remains to be seen if she will be refurbished.

General
Built1911
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge3 ft (Three feet)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft
Total wheelbase48 ft 10 1/2 in
Service weight112,000 lbs
Adhesive weight88,000 lbs
Total weight172,000 lbs
Axle load22,000 lbs
Water capacity3,000 us gal
Fuel capacity12,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power800 hp (597 kW)
Optimal speed23 mph
Starting effort22,108 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter48 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 17 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area32.2 sq ft
Firebox area110 sq ft
Tube heating area1,576 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,686 sq ft
Total heating area1,686 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
narrow gauge
last changed: 08/2023
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