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Tender Locomotives 4-8-2 “Mountain”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2'D1'
Boston & Maine class R-1
United States | 1935 | 18 produced
No. 4117 "Hercules"
No. 4117 "Hercules"
flickr/Mike Robbins

The class R-1 Mountains were the last steam locomotives ordered by the Boston & Maine. They were among the heaviest Mountains and were built in four batches between 1935 and 1941. Initially five R-1a were built, in 1937 another five R-1b, in 1939 three R-1c and finally five R-1d. All locomotives were given names that were determined in a competition.

From the R-1b onwards, the spoke wheels on the driven axle were replaced with disc wheels. The R-1c was almost identical to the R-1b, only the R-1d underwent major changes. It now had disc wheels on all drivers and the Coffin feed water heater was replaced with a Worthington one. In addition, there was now a seven-axle tender instead of the six-axle one. Thirteen R-1s were sold to the B&O in 1947, the remaining five were scrapped in 1955 and 1956.

General
Built1935-1941
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase44 ft 2 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 3 in
Service weight416,100 lbs
Adhesive weight269,400 lbs
Total weight788,800 lbs
Axle load68,900 lbs
Water capacity20,200 us gal
Fuel capacity45,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power4,500 hp (3,356 kW)
Optimal speed42 mph
Starting effort67,918 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure240 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 28 x 31 in
Boiler
Grate area79 sq ft
Firebox area475 sq ft
Tube heating area4,036 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,511 sq ft
Superheater area1,924 sq ft
Total heating area6,435 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
last changed: 04/2024
Canadian National class U-1a and U-1b
Canada | 1923 | 36 produced
U-1a No. 6015 in Jasper, Alberta
U-1a No. 6015 in Jasper, Alberta
Zeitlupe
VariantU-1a, b Robinson superheaterU-1b Schmidt superheater
General
Built19231924
ManufacturerCanadian Locomotive Co.
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase41 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase79 ft 2 in
Service weight354,300 lbs355,570 lbs
Adhesive weight235,390 lbs233,790 lbs
Total weight595,050 lbs603,870 lbs
Water capacity10,000 us gal
Fuel capacity34,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,100 hp (2,312 kW)3,200 hp (2,386 kW)
Optimal speed40 mph41 mph
Starting effort49,589 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area66.8 sq ft
Firebox area319 sq ft
Tube heating area3,730 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,049 sq ft
Superheater area810 sq ft1,057 sq ft
Total heating area4,859 sq ft5,106 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
last changed: 10 2023
Grand Trunk Western classes U-1c, d and e
Canada | 1925 | 22 produced
U-1e No. 6057 in August 1957 at Fort Rouge, Winnipeg
U-1e No. 6057 in August 1957 at Fort Rouge, Winnipeg
Peter Cox / collection Taylor Rush
U-1c No. 6039 in August 2006 in Steamtown, Scranton, Pennsylvania
U-1c No. 6039 in August 2006 in Steamtown, Scranton, Pennsylvania
US National Park Service

The Grand Trunk Western received five U-1cs from Baldwin in 1925, which were similar to parent company Canadian National's U-1a and b. They were modern Mountain type locomotives that were suitable for passenger, express and freight trains. They had a feed water heater and a stoker and were the first GTW locomotives with a Vanderbilt tender. Beginning in 1929, the CLC delivered five U-1d and the Montreal Locomotive Works twelve U-1e. The sub-variants d and e are largely the same, but differ in the Walschaert and Baker type valve gear.

VariantU-1cU-1d and e
General
Built19251929-1930
ManufacturerBaldwinCanadian Locomotive Co., Montreal Locomotive Works
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length92 ft 1 1/2 in
Wheelbase41 ft 9 in41 ft 10 in
Fixed wheelbase19 ft 6 in
Total wheelbase80 ft 3 3/4 in74 ft 7 in
Service weight354,110 lbs352,720 lbs
Adhesive weight231,370 lbs232,800 lbs
Total weight604,110 lbs574,020 lbs
Axle load57,843 lbs58,200 lbs
Water capacity13,575 us gal9,500 us gal
Fuel capacity36,000 lbs (coal)30,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,300 hp (2,461 kW)4,000 hp (2,983 kW)
Optimal speed42 mph49 mph
Starting effort49,589 lbf52,313 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure210 psi260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 26 x 30 intwo, 24 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area66.7 sq ft
Firebox area307 sq ft319 sq ft
Tube heating area3,731 sq ft3,581 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,038 sq ft3,900 sq ft
Superheater area1,048 sq ft1,040 sq ft
Total heating area5,086 sq ft4,940 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
freight
last changed: 04/2023
Canadian National class U-1f
Canada | 1944 | 20 produced
No. 6063 shortly after being delivered in Brockville, Ontario
No. 6063 shortly after being delivered in Brockville, Ontario
Elwin K. Heath / collection Taylor Rush
General
Built1944
ManufacturerMontreal Locomotive Works
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Fixed wheelbase19 ft
Service weight365,700 lbs
Adhesive weight236,950 lbs
Total weight647,540 lbs
Axle load59,238 lbs
Water capacity11,000 us gal
Fuel capacity5,000 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,450 hp (2,573 kW)
Optimal speed42 mph
Starting effort52,313 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter73 in
Boiler pressure260 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 24 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area70.2 sq ft
Firebox area386 sq ft
Tube heating area3,198 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,584 sq ft
Superheater area1,570 sq ft
Total heating area5,154 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
express
freight
last changed: 11 2023
Chesapeake & Ohio classes J-1 and J-2
United States | 1911 | 3 produced
No. 540 in 1934 in Columbus, Ohio
No. 540 in 1934 in Columbus, Ohio
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, October 1911

When hauling the new steel passenger cars over the Allegheny Mountains, the class F-15 Pacific locomotives quickly reached their limits, so that the trains could not consist of more than six cars. As a remedy, a new type of locomotive was designed in which, compared to the Pacific, a fourth coupled axle was added and the diameter of the wheels was slightly reduced in order to obtain more adhesive weight and to be able to install a larger boiler. Since this was the first locomotive with a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement in North America, the C&O gave the design the name “Mountain”.

Compared to the F-15, the tractive effort was almost doubled and the indicated power increased to almost 2,500 hp. Ten steel cars with a total weight of around 600 tons could now be hauled over the Alleghenies without any problems. With this load, you could reach 25 mph at 2.52 percent, and even 70 mph were reached on the flat. However, a disadvantage of the smaller coupling wheels and the special design of the Heusinger valve gear was that the engines exerted a very high hammer blow on the rails. As a result, only three class J-1 locomotives remained and from then on significantly more powerful Pacific class F-16 and F-17 locomotives were procured for the same task.

During World War I, the J-1 had to haul heavy freight trains across the Alleghenies. After the end of the war, seven examples of the USRA Heavy Mountain were procured and designated Class J-2. These put less strain on the rails with larger coupling wheels and Baker valve gear and, due to the increased boiler output, were able to generate approximately the same tractive effort.

In the 1920s, the J-1's valve gear was optimized with the help of new knowledge in order to reduce the known problems. In addition, the J-2s were soon fitted with Heusinger valve gear and were then referred to as the J-2a. In the 1930s and 1940s they were overtaken by the new J-3 and L-2 class locomotives, which initially led to the J-1 being phased out by 1948. Shortly thereafter, the C&O passenger trains were converted to diesel traction, which also meant that the J-2 was retired by 1952.

VariantJ-1J-2a
General
Built1911-19121918-1919, 1922
ManufacturerALCOALCO, Baldwin
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length87 ft 11 1/8 in
Service weight330,000 lbs363,550 lbs
Adhesive weight238,000 lbs246,850 lbs
Total weight549,100 lbs663,550 lbs
Axle load59,500 lbs61,800 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal16,000 us gal
Fuel capacity30,000 lbs (coal)2,016 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Starting effort58,110 lbf57,948 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in69 in
Boiler pressure180 psi200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 29 x 28 intwo, 28 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area66.5 sq ft76.2 sq ft
Firebox area338 sq ft438 sq ft
Tube heating area3,770 sq ft4,289 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,108 sq ft4,727 sq ft
Superheater area850 sq ft1,085 sq ft
Total heating area4,958 sq ft5,812 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 05/2022
Chōsen Government Railway Matei class
Korean National Mateo1 class and North Korean State Railway Madŏha class
Korea | 1939 | 50 produced
Matei No. 5 on a builder's photo
Matei No. 5 on a builder's photo
Kisha Seizo Kaisha

With the development of mining in North Korea, freight locomotives were needed that could be used on the winding mountain routes. The 2-8-2 type was already used for heavy freight trains, but there were concerns about excessive wear on wheel sets and rails due to the many tight curves. Thus, a leading bogie was used and the engines were called "Matei", which came from the American name "Mountain".

Development took place in Gyeongseong along with the Pacific Pashiko class locomotives, and that's where the first two examples were built. For the other 48 locomotives, the production order was given to Kisha Seizo in Japan. The locomotives had a modern look with large smoke deflectors and a common cover for the dome and the feedwater heater. The grate of 67 square feet was fed by a mechanical stoker.

During World War II, six examples were either destroyed or stolen by the Soviet Army. After the division of Korea, some of the rest came to the northern and southern parts of the country. In South Korea they became the Mateo1, while in the North they were referred to as the Madoha class. In the north they were also used in front of passenger trains and their long service life can be seen from the fact that they were re-classified as the 7100 series in the 1970s.

General
Built1939-1945
ManufacturerGyeongseong, Kisha Seizō
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length78 ft 2 7/16 in
Service weight255,736 lbs
Adhesive weight182,983 lbs
Total weight444,892 lbs
Axle load45,746 lbs
Water capacity9,246 us gal
Fuel capacity30,865 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power2,816 hp (2,100 kW)
Optimal speed36 mph
Top speed50 mph
Starting effort49,514 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter57.1 in
Boiler pressure213 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 23 5/8 x 27 15/16 in
Boiler
Grate area66.7 sq ft
Firebox area294.9 sq ft
Tube heating area2,719 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,013.9 sq ft
Superheater area1,223.9 sq ft
Total heating area4,237.7 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
freight
last changed: 10/2022
German Reichsbahn 08 1001
Rebuilt from... SNCF 241 A 4 (Est No. 241.004)
Germany | 1952 | only one produced

Even before the 07 1001, the Reichsbahn had rebuilt another French steam locomotive for firing with coal dust and numbered it 08 1001. It was a member of the class 241 A, which was built in 1931 for the French Eastern Railway and rested in Greifswald non-operational until 1952. As one of the few Mountain steam locomotives in Europe with a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement, it was an extraordinarily powerful express locomotive and was therefore ideal for trials with coal dust

Like the 07 1001, it had a four-cylinder de Glehn compound engine, the low and high pressure cylinders of which acted on the first and second driving axles and could be controlled separately, which was rarely used in Germany. The large combustion chamber favored the new type of firing, and so the rebuilding process began in 1952. However, the locomotive could not prove its efficiency because the boiler pressure had been reduced from 20 to 16 bars and the maximum speed was set at 110 km/h for safety reasons. The result was that the expectations had not been met and the locomotive was scrapped after just 34,000 km. The tests were then continued with the 07 1001, but also with relatively little success.

General
Built1952
ManufacturerFives-Lille, RAW Stendal
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length81 ft 4 3/8 in
Wheelbase43 ft 2 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase20 ft 2 1/8 in
Service weight270,066 lbs
Adhesive weight171,079 lbs
Axle load42,770 lbs
Water capacity8,982 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal dust
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,446 hp (2,570 kW)
Optimal speed70 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort31,216 lbf
with start valve37,459 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter76.8 in
Boiler pressure232 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 17 11/16 x 28 3/8 in
and LP: 26 x 28 3/8 in
Boiler
Grate area47.7 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,402.5 sq ft
Superheater area1,014 sq ft
Total heating area3,416.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
rebuilt
De Glehn compound
last changed: 01/2022
Florida East Coast class 801
developed from USRA Heavy Mountain
United States | 1926 | 23 produced
The Florida East Coast Class 801 is a direct descendant of the USRA Heavy Mountain
The Florida East Coast Class 801 is a direct descendant of the USRA Heavy Mountain

The last steam locomotives that the Florida East Coast purchased new were 23 copies of the USRA Heavy Mountain. They were delivered by ALCO-Schenectady in 1926 and were numbered 801 to 823. After the Mountains of the classes 301 and 401, they were significantly heavier. In direct comparison with the 401, they had a larger boiler and larger cylinders, but smaller drivers for greater pulling power. After three were lost by 1952 due to boiler explosion or accident, the remaining 20 were scrapped in 1954.

General
Built1926
ManufacturerALCO
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase41 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase18 ft
Total wheelbase82 ft 8 1/2 in
Service weight356,000 lbs
Adhesive weight224,500 lbs
Total weight611,900 lbs
Axle load61,300 lbs
Water capacity12,000 us gal
Fuel capacity5,000 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,200 hp (2,386 kW)
Optimal speed35 mph
Starting effort57,948 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter69 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 28 x 30 in
Boiler
Grate area75.3 sq ft
Firebox area395 sq ft
Tube heating area4,619 sq ft
Evaporative heating area5,014 sq ft
Superheater area1,477 sq ft
Total heating area6,491 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 04/2024
French State Railway 241 P
France | 1948 | 35 produced
241 P 17 in August 2017 in Aix-les-Bains
241 P 17 in August 2017 in Aix-les-Bains
Jvillafruela

Although the electrification of the French main lines was already foreseeable shortly after the end of the Second World War, particularly powerful steam locomotives were needed for the transitional period. Since express trains with up to 20 four-axle coaches had to be hauled on mountainous main routes, an output of around 4,000 hp was required. The choice fell on a locomotive with a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement, which was also called the “extended Pacific” in France. The 241 P developed in this way was the last steam locomotive in Europe with this wheel arrangement.

The 241 C of the PLM from the year 1930, which had only been built once, was used as the basis. In the De Glehn four-cylinder compound powerplant, the high-pressure cylinders were located within the frame between the first and second coupled axle and drove the third coupled axle. The low-pressure cylinders were level with the middle of the bogie and drove the second coupled axle. André Chapelon was involved in optimizing the steam paths in the boiler and powerplant, but did not have the opportunity to redesign the design in depth. In addition, a double, cloverleaf-shaped blowpipe based on the PLM design and a mechanical stoker were installed.

241 P 1 on a post card of 1950
241 P 1 on a post card of 1950

Compared to the 241 C, the 241 P achieved about 20 percent more power. While the predecessor did not make it into series production, a total of 35 examples of the 241 P were built up to 1952. As standard they received a tender with 34 cubic meters of water and twelve tonnes of coal, but alternatively tenders with 36 cubic meters of water and only nine tonnes of coal were also used.

The engines first came to the Sud-Est and Nord regions. After the most important main lines there were electrified, some were moved to other lines within the regions and others were moved to the Est and Ouest regions. In the 1960s, they were able to prove their power one last time when they had to stand in alone to replace broken A1AA1A 68000 diesel locomotives, which were otherwise used double-headed.

In January 1969, 17 of the 35 pieces were still in use. In that year, the number of remaining engines decreased rapidly, so that the last regular operations took place on September 28, 1969. Four engines have been preserved, with number 17 being the only operational one to date, making it the most powerful operational steam engine in Europe. Number 9 could also become operational again in the future.

General
Built1948-1952
ManufacturerSchneider
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length88 ft 11 5/8 in
Length loco56 ft 4 1/16 in
Fixed wheelbase77 ft 1 3/16 in
Total wheelbase44 ft 1 15/16 in
Empty weight13,889 lbs
Service weight289,687 lbs
Adhesive weight179,897 lbs
Total weight476,639 lbs
Axle load44,974 lbs
Water capacity8,982 us gal
Fuel capacity26,455 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power3,943 hp (2,940 kW)
Optimal speed72 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort34,785 lbf
with start valve41,742 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter79.5 in
Boiler pressure290 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 17 9/16 x 25 9/16 in
and LP: 26 9/16 x 27 9/16 in
Boiler
Grate area54.4 sq ft
Firebox area316.8 sq ft
Tube heating area2,317.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,634.7 sq ft
Superheater area1,166.6 sq ft
Total heating area3,801.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
De Glehn compound
André Chapelon
last changed: 10/2022
Great Northern (US) class P-1
United States | 1914 | 15 produced
No. 1755 on a works photo
No. 1755 on a works photo
Ron Ziel, „American Locomotives 1858 to 1949”

The Great Northern was one of the first railroads in the United States to order Mountain locomotives. The manufacturer Lima saw these as Mikados, which had a two-axle forward bogie for better running characteristics in passenger service. The Great Northern wanted to use the P-1 to eliminate the need for helpers on passenger trains in Montana and the Cascades.

They had a conical boiler with a Belpaire firebox. The first ten P-1s were coal-fired and the last five were oil-fired. The diameter of the drivers was only 62 inches or 1,575 mm, which was an advantage on the steep lines. The speed of passenger trains was now 20 mph (32 km/h) on the 1.8 percent in Montana and 15 mph (24 km/h) on the 2.2 percent in the Cascades, both without helpers.

When these locomotives were no longer sufficient to meet the increased requirements, in 1928 all P-1s were rebuilt into 2-10-2 freight locomotives and designated class Q-2. The drivers and the cylinder diameter were each increased by one inch. The boiler only remained the same on the outside and had many changes on the inside, as well as a higher pressure. They were all coal-fired, but nine were converted to oil in the 1940s. Their decommissioning began in the 1950s and was completed in April 1958.

VariantP-1rebuilt Q-2
General
Built19141928
ManufacturerLimaSt. Paul
Axle config4-8-2 (Mountain) 2-10-2 (Santa Fé) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase38 ft31 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 9 in22 ft
Total wheelbase71 ft 4 in83 ft 6 1/2 in
Service weight326,000 lbs364,000 lbs
Adhesive weight218,000 lbs290,000 lbs
Total weight487,000 lbs679,600 lbs
Axle load55,000 lbs58,000 lbs
Water capacity8,000 us gal17,000 us gal
Fuel capacity30,000 lbs (coal)5,800 us gal (oil)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power3,200 hp (2,386 kW)4,000 hp (2,983 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph
Starting effort61,911 lbf76,251 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter62 in63 in
Boiler pressure180 psi210 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 28 x 32 intwo, 29 x 32 in
Boiler
Grate area78 sq ft
Firebox area340 sq ft362 sq ft
Tube heating area4,200 sq ft4,463 sq ft
Evaporative heating area4,540 sq ft4,825 sq ft
Superheater area975 sq ft1,184 sq ft
Total heating area5,515 sq ft6,009 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
freight
last changed: 04/2024
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