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German Reichsbahn class 1910
Germany | 1940 | only one produced
Henschel works photo of 19 1001
Henschel works photo of 19 1001
von Rudolf Kreutzer / Eisenbahnstiftung Joachim Schmidt

As the speed of steam locomotives increased, the moving masses of the engine became an ever greater problem. Although this could be partially compensated for with larger and larger driving wheels, the practical limits were reached with a wheel diameter of 2,300 mm. Regular operation could no longer be achieved above a speed of 400revolutions per minute, which was achieved with the locomotives of the classes 05 and 61 at around 175 km/h.

The steam motor, which works in a similar way to a piston engine, was seen as a possible way out. Since this had been developed into a compact design in the mid-1930s, the idea arose to develop a steam locomotive like the modern electric locomotives of that time with individual axle drive. Apart from the motors, the locomotive was created according to the same pattern as other express locomotives, since the focus was initially on the steam engines and no further experiments were wanted. The four powered axles each received a steam motor, which was mounted alternately on the right and left outside the wheels. These each had two cylinders arranged in V shape with a 90 degree angle to each other. Since significantly higher rotational speeds were possible here than with conventional steam locomotives, the wheels were designed with an exceptionally small diameter of 1,250 mm.

In order to avoid the development of a new boiler, the boiler of the class 44 freight locomotive was used. This was one of the first mass-produced locomotives with a pressure of 20 bars and promised good performance. At the projected speeds, a streamlined fairing was mandatory, and the fairing of the 0110 didn't need too many adjustments to be used on the 19 1001.

After the somewhat delayed delivery, extensive test runs took place, but due to the war, these mostly took place at speeds below 100 km/h. Despite this, some high-speed braking tests were undertaken, reaching speeds of up to 186 km/h. Although the axles reached almost 800 revolutions per minute, the running smoothness remained in a very good range due to the low moving masses. The disadvantage that turned out to be that the drive axles were not coupled to each other and individual axles tended to slip. On a trip with a heavy express train, the locomotive once even stopped on an incline.

In times of war, no further attention was paid to further development and the single locomotive was used in passenger service from the beginning of 1943. During a shutdown due to damage, it was severely damaged in a bomb attack in October 1944 and was no longer used. After the end of the war, road number 19 1001 was taken to the USA together with class 52 with a condensing tender in order to be able to examine the latest German developments there. The Bundesbahn subsequently decided not to buy them back, because even the network, which was still in a poor condition, could not use a single unit that was expensive to maintain for these speeds.

General
Built1940
ManufacturerHenschel
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length78 ft 0 in
Wheelbase37 ft 0 1/2 in
Fixed wheelbase63 ft 7 3/8 in
Service weight240,745 lbs
Adhesive weight164,465 lbs
Axle load41,667 lbs
Water capacity9,840 us gal
Power
Power sourcesteam motor
Top speed109 mph
Starting effort33,022 lbf
Engine output1,676 hp (1,250 kW)
Power Plant
Driver diameter49.2 in
Boiler pressure290 psi
Cylinderseight, 11 13/16 x 11 13/16 in
Boiler
Grate area49 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,579.8 sq ft
Superheater area1,076.4 sq ft
Total heating area3,656.2 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
streamline
steam motor
prototype
last changed: 01/2022
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