The reference for locomotives and railcars


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Saxon XX HV
German Reichsbahn class 190
Germany | 1918 | 23 produced
Locomotive Magazine, December 1926

At the time they went into service, the class XX HV locomotives were the heaviest and most powerful express locomotives in Europe. In addition, they were the first and only express locomotives in Germany with the wheel arrangement 2-8-2, also called Mikado

At that time, the boiler was also the largest of a locomotive in Germany and, with a tube length of 5.8 meters, also anticipated the development of later standard locomotives. The same boiler was used in a slightly weaker version in the sister model XVIII H, which was developed at the same time and had the wheel arrangement 4-6-2. A four-cylinder compound engine was used to poert the engine, the cylinders of which all acted on the second coupled axle. The nominal output was officially 1,800 hp, but there was also talk of higher outputs. For example, the magazine “Die Lokomotive” in 1919 stated "over 2,000 hp". The bar frame also ensured that all cylinders were accessible for maintenance.

With this performance and the not overly large wheels, there was considerable traction that was ahead of all other express locomotives in Europe at the time. The engine was also characterized by good running smoothness, but had a slightly higher coal consumption than other locomotives when driving fast on level track. Due to the properties of the engine and the high adhesive load, the locomotives were particularly suitable for mountain routes, which is why they were primarily used to pull heavy express trains on the Dresden-Hof and Leipzig-Hof routes. The top speed of 100 km/h was initially sufficient there, but it was later increased to 120 km/h.

19 017 in August 1994 in Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf
19 017 in August 1994 in Chemnitz-Hilbersdorf
Werner & Hansjörg Brutzer

Deliveries began in 1918 and continued even after the establishment of the Reichsbahn. Due to the special suitability of the machines for routes with many gradients, orders from other group administrations followed, these locomotives were based in Stuttgart and Frankfurt am Main. Shortly thereafter, it was assigned to the new 19 series, and so the 23 machines built were given the numbers 19 001 to 19 023.

Later, all pieces returned to Saxony to the workshops in Dresden and Reichenbach/Vogtland. This was the reason that all 22 remaining engines came into the stock of the Reichsbahn of the GDR after the Second World War. Some of the remaining locomotives were immediately retired as they had suffered severe damage during the war. The rest continued to be used in heavy passenger service and were retired by 1967.

An exception were 19 015 and 19 022, which were rebuilt in the 1960s. They received no nominal increase in performance, but were rebuilt taking into account new manufacturing processes. The first engine initially received the large tender 2'3 T 38, but in 1967 both were converted to oil firing. These two rebuilt engines were mainly used as brake locomotives for measuring runs, but were also used in front of scheduled trains if necessary. They were given computer numbers 04 0015 and 04 0022 in 1970 and retired in 1975 and 1977 respectively.

Variantas builtraised top speed
Axle config2-8-2 (Mikado) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length74 ft 3 in
Length loco46 ft 10 3/8 in
Wheelbase39 ft 2 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase13 ft 1 1/2 in
Empty weight199,077 lbs
Service weight220,242 lbs
Adhesive weight151,237 lbs
Total weight358,692 lbs
Axle load37,919 lbs
Water capacity8,189 us gal
Fuel capacity15,432 lbs (coal)
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power1,776 hp (1,324 kW)
Optimal speed37 mph
Top speed62 mph75 mph
Starting effort30,246 lbf
with start valve36,295 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter75 in
Boiler pressure218 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 18 7/8 x 24 13/16 in
and LP: 28 3/8 x 24 13/16 in
Grate area48.4 sq ft
Firebox area167.9 sq ft
Tube heating area2,271.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,439.1 sq ft
Superheater area796.5 sq ft
Total heating area3,235.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
Von Borries compound
last changed: 01/2022

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