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Tender Locomotives 4-4-2 “Atlantic”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2'B1 and 2'B1
Badenian II d
German Reichsbahn class 144
Germany | 1902 | 18 produced
No. 747 when delivered in 1905
No. 747 when delivered in 1905
works photo MBG Karlsruhe

In view of the increasing loads in express train service around the turn of the century, the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways launched a tender for a heavy express locomotive, in which seven designs took part. The requirement was to transport trains weighing 200 tonnes up gradients of 0.33 percent at a speed of 100 km/h. The contract went to Maffei, which also later developed the express trains for Baden.

In 1902, at the time of delivery, they were the largest of their kind in Europe with an operating weight of around 75 tonnes, which rested on a chassis with the axle configuration 4-4-2 (Atlantic). They were powered by a saturated compound engine, the four cylinders of which all acted on the first coupled axle. In contrast to the later Maffei express locomotives, the frame was not yet designed as a bar construction, but as a plate frame, as was usual at the time. Due to the elongated firebox, the distance between the rear coupled axle and the trailing axle was very large. The latter was designed as an Adam's axle, since the ash pan would not have allowed space for a drawbar.

Due to the long wheelbase and a large driving wheel diameter of 2,100 mm, the locomotives were remarkably smooth running right from the start. During test runs in 1904 with a train of four cars, top and average speeds of 144 and 116 km/h were reached. The first was broken three years later by the Bavarian S 2/6, which was also a Maffei design, but unlike the II d it was only developed as a one-off for test purposes.

The first production batch of twelve engines was manufactured by Maffei and delivered in 1902, another came in 1905 from the Karlsruhe mechanical engineering company and comprised six units. After the First World War, a total of ten engines had to be handed over to France. This left only seven units, as one engine had to be scrapped as early as 1903 due to an accident. The locomotives that remained in Germany were still intended to be redesignated as class 144, but they could not expect a long life due to their only two coupled axles and were therefore retired in 1925. The now French locomotives remained in service for another nine years.

General
Built1902, 1905
ManufacturerMaffei, MBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length68 ft 7 1/16 in
Wheelbase34 ft 2 1/4 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 2 5/8 in
Empty weight147,269 lbs
Service weight166,890 lbs
Adhesive weight73,414 lbs
Axle load36,817 lbs
Water capacity5,283 us gal
Fuel capacity13,228 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,207 hp (900 kW)
Optimal speed51 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort15,061 lbf
with start valve18,073 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter82.7 in
Boiler pressure232 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 3/16 x 24 7/16 in
and LP: 22 7/16 x 24 7/16 in
Boiler
Grate area41.7 sq ft
Firebox area146.6 sq ft
Tube heating area2,114.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,261.5 sq ft
Total heating area2,261.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Von Borries compound
last changed: 01/2022
Bavarian S 2/5
German Reichsbahn class 141
Germany | 1904 | 10 produced
Die Lokomotive, May 1906

The S 2/5 was an Atlantic express locomotive that was developed at the beginning of the century together with the S 3/5. Both implemented learnings from the locomotives borrowed from Baldwin and were the first German locomotives with a continuous bar frame

The bar frame consisted of much thicker metal than the plate frames used up until then and therefore had a lower installation height. The result was not only a sleeker look with see-through undercarriage, but also much better accessibility to the internal parts of the chassis. Especially in locomotives with more than two cylinders, the inside cylinders could be serviced more easily.

Compared to the 1,870 mm coupled wheel diameter of the S 3/5, the wheels of the S 2/5 had a diameter of 2,000 mm, making it suitable for longer journeys on flat land at high speed. Due to the larger diameter, however, the last coupled axle had to be replaced with a trailing axle, which reduced the possible traction. As a result, the S 2/5 was able to run up to 135 km/h in tests, but the permitted speed was set at 110 km/h like its sister. Initially it also pulled high-value international trains, but soon its tractive power was no longer sufficient for the increased loads and so it was replaced by the S 3/5 and S 3/6.

Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Die Lokomotive, May 1906

A total of ten engines were delivered in 1904, which were relocated to the Palatinate network in 1910. After it was founded, the Reichsbahn still registered half of the stock, which was given the numbers 14 141 to 14 145 in 1925. They were phased out in the next two years.

General
Built1904
ManufacturerMaffei
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 2 7/8 in
Wheelbase28 ft 4 9/16 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 4 9/16 in
Empty weight137,127 lbs
Service weight151,237 lbs
Adhesive weight70,548 lbs
Axle load35,274 lbs
Water capacity5,548 us gal
Fuel capacity15,432 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,086 hp (810 kW)
Optimal speed41 mph
Top speed68 mph
Starting effort16,687 lbf
with start valve20,024 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78.7 in
Boiler pressure232 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 3/8 x 25 3/16 in
and LP: 22 7/16 x 25 3/16 in
Boiler
Grate area35.2 sq ft
Firebox area156.1 sq ft
Tube heating area2,055.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,212 sq ft
Total heating area2,212 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Von Borries compound
Anton Hammel
last changed: 01/2022
Bavarian S 2/5 (Vauclain)
Germany | 1900 | 2 produced
No. 2399
No. 2399
works photo Baldwin

In order to gain experience with steam locomotive designs from the USA, the Bavarian State Railways ordered four locomotives from Baldwin in 1899 and 1900. These were the two type E I Consolidations and the two type S 2/5 Atlantics. What both had in common was the four-cylinder Vauclain compound engine and the bar frame. The S 2/5 was based on the Milwaukee Road class A-1, but to save weight the drivers were made smaller by six inches.

The special feature of the Vauclain drive was that all four cylinders were outside the frame and were easily accessible. Although this design did not become established in Europe, the Bavarian State Railway adopted the bar frame for all later four-cylinder locomotives. This made maintenance of the cylinders located within the frame easier. The bar frame was later also used on the standard locomotives of the Reichsbahn, even though in principle only a few southern German influences were allowed on these. The two S 2/5 remained in service between Munich and Salzburg for more than 20 years, but were decommissioned in 1923 and were therefore no longer renumbered as Reichsbahn class 14.

General
Built1900
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length61 ft 5 1/4 in
Wheelbase25 ft 5 1/8 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 9 1/8 in
Service weight138,450 lbs
Adhesive weight67,902 lbs
Axle load33,951 lbs
Water capacity5,548 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power939 hp (700 kW)
Optimal speed38 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort15,618 lbf
with start valve18,742 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure203 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 x 26 in
and LP: 22 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area30.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,000 sq ft
Total heating area2,000 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Vauclain compound
last changed: 12/2023
Cape Government Railways class 4 4-4-2
South African class 04 4-4-2
South Africa | 1897 | 6 produced
The photo shows the overwhelming resemblance to the JNR 6600
The photo shows the overwhelming resemblance to the JNR 6600
„Die Schönsten der Schiene, die Geschichte der Atlantic” von Wilhelm Reuter

Almost identical to the Japanese Atlantics with the JNR numbers 6600 to 6623 were the six locomotives that the Cape Government Railways received from Baldwin in 1897. The order came about because the CGR could not order from the British manufacturers as usual due to strikes and Baldwin had already developed a locomotive that largely met the requirements. Only the heating surface was slightly enlarged and the engine had to be converted to South African Johnston couplers, which is why a lower purchase price could be offered. They were assigned to Class 4, which also included 4-6-0 locomotives.

It is said that the chief engineer of the CGR, H.M. Beatty, was impressed by the robust construction and he valued the merits of the bar frame so much that his later designs also all got a bar frame. After the founding of the South African Union in 1910 and the merger of the railway administrations, it became apparent, as with the Japanese sisters, that the locomotives had too little adhesive weight to reliably start heavy trains. They were therefore classified as obsolete, but remained in use on their main route until 1931.

General
Built1897
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge3 ft 6 in (Cape gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length53 ft 5 1/2 in
Wheelbase22 ft 6 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft
Total wheelbase45 ft 11 1/2 in
Service weight100,354 lbs
Adhesive weight53,197 lbs
Total weight167,772 lbs
Axle load27,205 lbs
Water capacity2,882 us gal
Fuel capacity12,880 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power800 hp (597 kW)
Optimal speed33 mph
Starting effort15,387 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter56 in
Boiler pressure180 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area30 sq ft
Firebox area98 sq ft
Tube heating area1,462 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,560 sq ft
Total heating area1,560 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
passenger
last changed: 03/2022
Chicago & North Western class D
United States | 1900 | 91 produced
No. 1088 in March 1936 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
No. 1088 in March 1936 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Howard Locomotive Photographs

The class of the D Chicago & North Western was one of the first Atlantics with a wide firebox. With this arrangement, it was quickly discovered that firing was much easier and that much power could even be delivered with inferior coal. Production consisted of a first variant, of which 77 were built between 1900 and 1907, and another, of which 14 were built in 1908.

The first variant had an inside Stephenson valve gear with valves that were also inside the frame. The last ten of the second variant were built with a Walschaert valve gear and Young rotary valves.

The locomotives pulled trains, usually consisting of ten, sometimes eleven cars. 74 were later retrofitted with a superheater. When the wooden cars were replaced with steel cars and more powerful express locomotives were introduced, the class D was used in commuter and local traffic. Almost all locomotives survived into the late 1930s, 15 even survived into the late 1940s.

Variant1900 variant1908 variantsuperheated
General
Built1900-19071908
ManufacturerALCOCNW
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft
Total wheelbase57 ft 11 1/2 in58 ft 7 in57 ft 11 1/2 in
Service weight158,000 lbs183,000 lbs181,500 lbs
Adhesive weight91,000 lbs95,000 lbs97,500 lbs
Total weight298,000 lbs327,300 lbs325,500 lbs
Axle load45,500 lbs47,500 lbs48,750 lbs
Water capacity7,500 us gal
Fuel capacity20,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,575 hp (1,174 kW)1,800 hp (1,342 kW)
Optimal speed45 mph46 mph53 mph
Starting effort22,100 lbf21,827 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in81 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 20 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area46.3 sq ft
Firebox area199 sq ft197.1 sq ft199 sq ft
Tube heating area2,817 sq ft2,758.9 sq ft1,975 sq ft
Evaporative heating area3,016 sq ft2,956 sq ft2,174 sq ft
Superheater area439 sq ft
Total heating area3,016 sq ft2,956 sq ft2,613 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2024
Erie class E-1
United States | 1899 | 29 produced
Edwin P. Alexander, „American Locomotives 1900 to 1950”

The class E-1 of the Erie Railroad consisted of 29 Atlantic express locomotives built by Baldwin between 1899 and 1901 and rated for speeds of 100 mph. They were Camelback locomotives with a square Wootten firebox measuring 96 by 96 inches.

Propulsion was provided by a Vauclain compound engine, i.e. with high and low pressure cylinders one above the other. A rebuild began as early as 1904, in which the four cylinders were replaced by two cylinders with simple expansion. One also increased the distance between the tube sheets by six inches to increase the heating surface area.

Variantas builtrebuilt
General
Built1899-19011904-1906
ManufacturerBaldwin
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase24 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 7 in
Total wheelbase52 ft 9 1/2 in
Service weight142,000 lbs155,100 lbs
Adhesive weight82,000 lbs75,800 lbs
Total weight258,800 lbs271,900 lbs
Axle load41,800 lbs
Water capacity6,000 us gal
Fuel capacity24,000 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,500 hp (1,119 kW)1,525 hp (1,137 kW)
Optimal speed66 mph52 mph
Top speed100 mph
Starting effort14,570 lbf18,843 lbf
with start valve17,484 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter76 in
Boiler pressure200 psi
Expansion typecompoundsimple
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 x 26 in
and LP: 22 x 26 in
two, 18 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area64 sq ft
Firebox area160 sq ft
Tube heating area2,110 sq ft2,171 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,270 sq ft2,331 sq ft
Total heating area2,270 sq ft2,331 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
camelback
Vauclain compound
last changed: 06/2023
Great Northern (UK) class C1 (large boiler)
London & North Eastern class C1
Great Britain | 1902 | 94 produced
No. 1300 with four-cylinder compound engine
No. 1300 with four-cylinder compound engine
Vulcan Foundry

As a development of the C1 with a small boiler, Ivatt had number 251 built in 1902, which was also an Atlantic. The most striking difference was the significantly larger boiler, which had a diameter of 5 ft 6 in instead of 4 ft 8 in. Based on the American model, its firebox stood on the frame behind the coupled axles and was significantly wider. This should serve the goal of being able to produce large amounts of steam even at the highest speeds.

The prototype had only two cylinders, slightly larger than those of the smaller Atlantic. The slide valves were soon exchanged for piston valves, improving performance. Initially 80 production pieces of this version were built between 1904 and 1908. Ten more followed in 1910, which had a factory superheater and operated with a boiler pressure of just 150 instead of 170 psi. The earlier pieces also got a superheater later.

Individual examples were built with four compound cylinders and a 200 psi pressure boiler as a trial. Number 292, which was already built in 1904, made the start. As a compound locomotive of the De Glehn type, it had external high-pressure cylinders that drove the rear coupled axle and internal low-pressure cylinders that drove the front coupled axle. The valve gear was designed in such a way that it could start up as a four-cylinder engine with simple steam expansion and then be switched to compound action. This locomotive had a boiler pressure of 200 psi and was in service until 1927.

No. 251
No. 251
J.R. Howden, „The Boys' Book of Locomotives”

Similar to the 292 was the 1421, also built at Doncaster in 1907. It had a similar engine, but larger low-pressure cylinders. After receiving a superheater in 1914, it was converted into a simple two-cylinder engine in 1920 and thus joined the 91 examples of the production version.

An exception was number 1300, built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1905, which like the small Atlantic had a long, narrow firebox. The arrangement of the cylinders corresponded to the other two four-cylinder locomotives, but the valve gear differed. It had an automatic starting device, which initially worked with two cylinders with simple steam expansion and automatically switched to compound operation with all four cylinders as speed increased. Like the 1421, it received a superheater in 1914 and was converted to a two-cylinder engine in 1917.

The 279, which had been part of the series production, was converted into a four-cylinder locomotives in 1915. Here, however, simple steam expansion was still used, which is why all cylinders now had a diameter of 15 instead of 19 inches. It remained in service in this form until 1938, when it received two new 20-inch diameter cylinders from the K2 class Mogul

Schematical drawing of No. 292
Schematical drawing of No. 292
Locomotive Magazine, May 1908

Since the production version already provided very good service, no further special versions were built. Like their predecessors, they easily reached 90 mph and, in contrast to these, were able to pull up to 500 long tons at high speeds. The LNER also referred to them as class C1, while the smaller C1s now became C2s. Although one machine was equipped with a booster in 1923 to increase the tractive effort, the tractive effort of the other machines was apparently still sufficient and so this was later removed again.

Regular service on the heaviest express trains ended in the 1920s with the introduction of the A1 class Pacifics. The C1 now tended to pull lighter express trains and stood in for failed Pacifics. Especially in the latter area of operation, they often proved that they could also take over these trains without any problems and thus provided train services that were actually significantly higher than the services originally intended for them. From about 1950 they mainly only pulled regular passenger trains before they were retired between 1954 and 1960.

Variantproduction variantNo. 292No. 1300No. 1421
General
Built1902-1910190419051907
ManufacturerDoncasterVulcan FoundryDoncaster
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 4 in28 ft 4 in26 ft 4 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 10 in8 ft 6 in6 ft 10 in
Service weight153,215 lbs153,440 lbs159,040 lbs154,785 lbs
Adhesive weight80,640 lbs82,880 lbs80,640 lbs
Total weight244,830 lbs245,055 lbs250,655 lbs156,130 lbs
Axle load40,320 lbs40,880 lbs41,440 lbs40,880 lbs
Water capacity4,203 us gal
Fuel capacity14,560 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,050 hp (783 kW)1,250 hp (932 kW)1,350 hp (1,007 kW)1,200 hp (895 kW)
Optimal speed43 mph84 mph54 mph75 mph
Top speed90 mph
Starting effort15,649 lbf9,527 lbf15,803 lbf10,252 lbf
with start valve11,432 lbf18,964 lbf12,302 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter80 in
Boiler pressure170 psi200 psi
Expansion typesimplecompound
Cylinderstwo, 19 x 24 infour, HP: 13 x 20 in
and LP: 16 x 26 in
four, HP: 14 x 26 in
and LP: 23 x 26 in
four, HP: 13 x 20 in
and LP: 18 x 26 in
Boiler
Grate area31 sq ft
Firebox area141 sq ft170 sq ft143.6 sq ft
Tube heating area2,500 sq ft2,515 sq ft2,351 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,641 sq ft2,685 sq ft2,494.6 sq ft
Total heating area2,641 sq ft2,685 sq ft2,494.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
De Glehn compound
Henry Alfred Ivatt
last changed: 06/2022
Great Northern (UK) class C1 (small boiler) “Klondykes”
London & North Eastern class C2
Great Britain | 1898 | 22 produced
Locomotive Magazine, July 1898

Shortly before the turn of the century, Henry Ivatt had the task of developing a new locomotive for the increasing loads of the most important express trains. He had to measure himself against the singles from his predecessor Patrick Stirling, who were still considered excellent and very fast, but no longer powerful enough. Here, for the first time in Great Britain, the wheel arrangement 4-4-2 was used, which originally came from the USA and was known there as “Atlantic”. The difference was that the Atlantic was developed in the US from the 4-4-0 “American” to allow for a larger firebox and smoother running, while in the UK it was a 4-2-2 “Single” with an extra coupled axle

No. 990 “Henry Oakley” at the Doncaster Works Open Day, July 2003
No. 990 “Henry Oakley” at the Doncaster Works Open Day, July 2003
Our Phellap

The class also represented a departure from British tradition in other respects, most notably with its externally mounted cylinders. The class was initially only named after the first machine built with the number 990 and later got the designation C1. To distinguish them from the larger boiler design of 1902, the locomotives are generally known simply as “C1 (small boiler)” or “Small Atlantics”. Because of the American influence, they were also nicknamed “Klondykes” after the Klondike Gold Rush. A single example, number 271, was built in 1902 with four small simple acting cylinders.

Schematic drawing
Schematic drawing
Locomotive Magazine, October 1900

A total of 22 pieces were made. The locomotives easily reached 90 mph, which proved difficult in everyday use on routes such as between London and Doncaster. At some speeds, it was often found that the cylinders were too small to implement the boiler's output. This led to unfavorable valve gear settings during operation, which led to high steam consumption.

In 1909, number 988 was the only one equipped with a superheater according to the Schmidt patent. The boiler pressure was reduced from 175 to 160 psi and in return the cylinder diameter was increased from 19 to 20 inches. From 1914 all other machines were converted with the Robinson superheater. From 1923, the machines were listed as class C2 by the LNER. The decommissioning began as early as 1935 and lasted until 1946. Today only number 990, which was built first, still exists, which bears the name “Henry Oakley” after the former managing director of the Great Northern

VariantproductionsuperheatedNo. 271
General
Built1898-19031909, 1914-19251902
ManufacturerDoncaster
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase26 ft 4 in26 ft 9 in
Fixed wheelbase6 ft 10 in6 ft 10 1/2 in
Total wheelbase48 ft 3 in
Service weight129,941 lbs134,400 lbs131,600 lbs
Adhesive weight69,548 lbs72,128 lbs73,360 lbs
Total weight221,557 lbs226,016 lbs217,840 lbs
Axle load35,750 lbs37,184 lbs38,080 lbs
Water capacity4,407 us gal
Fuel capacity11,200 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power800 hp (597 kW)1,050 hp (783 kW)775 hp (578 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph38 mph29 mph
Top speed90 mph
Starting effort16,091 lbf17,785 lbf17,163 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78 in
Boiler pressure175 psi170 psi175 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 3/4 x 24 intwo, 20 x 24 infour, 15 x 20 in
Boiler
Grate area26.8 sq ft24.5 sq ft
Firebox area140 sq ft137 sq ft140.5 sq ft
Tube heating area1,302 sq ft1,027 sq ft1,162.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,442 sq ft1,164 sq ft1,303 sq ft
Superheater area343 sq ft
Total heating area1,442 sq ft1,507 sq ft1,303 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Henry Alfred Ivatt
last changed: 06/2022
Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway series IId
Imperial-Royal State Railways class 308, Czechoslovak State Railways class 274.0 and Polish State Railways Pf12
Austria-Hungary | 1895 | 75 produced
Die Lokomotive, June 1904
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Schematic drawing with dimensions
Die Lokomotive, June 1904

The 57 series IId machines of the Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn were the first Atlantic locomotives in Europe. The trailing axle was fixed in the frame, but was only just behind the second coupled axle. In the kkStB they became the class 308 and the twelve machines from 1908 with steam dryers became the 308.5. Three units were converted to the class 227 with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. The Warsaw-Vienna Railway received 18 locomotives that were almost identical. After World War I almost half ended up in either Czechoslovakia or Poland. Regardless of the operator, the locomotives had almost completely disappeared around 1940.

Variant225-236237-251252-269270-281
General
Built18951895-18991900-1901, 1905-19071908
ManufacturerWiener Neustadt
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length55 ft 9 3/16 in
Wheelbase27 ft 4 3/4 in
Fixed wheelbase7 ft 6 9/16 in
Total wheelbase45 ft 7 1/16 in
Empty weight120,593 lbs121,254 lbs
Service weight133,600 lbs134,261 lbs
Adhesive weight61,729 lbs
Total weight215,391 lbs216,494 lbs
Axle load30,865 lbs
Water capacity3,963 us gal
Fuel capacity13,228 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort16,794 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter77.2 in
Boiler pressure188 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 1/2 x 23 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area31.2 sq ft
Firebox area127 sq ft131.3 sq ft
Tube heating area1,688.9 sq ft1,683.5 sq ft1,252.9 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,923.5 sq ft1,918.1 sq ft1,916 sq ft1,384.2 sq ft
Superheater area424.1 sq ft
Total heating area1,923.5 sq ft1,918.1 sq ft1,916 sq ft1,808.3 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 03/2023
Imperial-Royal State Railways and Austrian Southern Railway class 108
Czechoslovak State Railways class 275.0
Austria-Hungary | 1901 | 36 produced

In 1901, Karl Gölsdorf had the class 108 built, which was the first Atlantic in Austria-Hungary with a four-cylinder compound engine. The requirement was to accommodate a powerful express locomotive with the largest possible tender on the existing 16 meter turntables. This meant that the total wheelbase could be a maximum of 16,440 mm.

The length of the locomotive was kept short by extending the firebox to the rear edge of the frame. The crew stood on the platform between the locomotive and the tender, while the firebox had to be placed between the wheels between the second driving axle and the trailing axle due to the short wheelbase. The new, four-axle tender could hold 21 cubic meters of water and 9 cubic meters of coal, which allowed a long range.

The locomotives briefly produced up to 1,600 hp and could reach speeds of up to 143 km/h. However, for operational reasons, the maximum permitted speed was only 100 km/h. They were able to pull 220 tonnes at 75 km/h on an incline of one percent.

In addition to the 25 machines of the kkStB, the Südbahn also purchased eleven. After the First World War, the kkStB machines went to the ČSD, which remained in use there as the class 275.0 until 1948. However, those from the Südbahn came to the BBÖ in 1923 and remained in use until 1934.

General
Built1901-1910
ManufacturerBMMF, Wiener Neustadt, StEG
Axle config4-4-2 (Atlantic) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length63 ft 10 15/16 in
Length loco37 ft 6 7/8 in
Wheelbase34 ft 10 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft 2 1/4 in
Total wheelbase53 ft 11 1/4 in
Service weight150,576 lbs
Adhesive weight63,934 lbs
Total weight260,807 lbs
Axle load31,967 lbs
Water capacity5,548 us gal
Fuel capacity14,991 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power1,381 hp (1,030 kW)
Optimal speed53 mph
Top speed62 mph
Starting effort16,653 lbf
with start valve19,984 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter84.3 in
Boiler pressure218 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 3/4 x 26 3/4 in
and LP: 23 5/8 x 26 3/4 in
Boiler
Grate area38 sq ft
Firebox area172.2 sq ft
Tube heating area2,314.2 sq ft
Evaporative heating area2,486.5 sq ft
Total heating area2,486.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
Von Borries compound
Karl Gölsdorf
last changed: 01/2024
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Display of units

Here you can set the desired unit system for the technical data.

  • Metric: Lengths in meters, weights in tonnes, and volumes in cubic meters
  • Imperial (UK): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in long tons and volumes in imperial gallons
  • Imperial (US): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in pounds, and volumes in US gallons
  • Individual: Depends on the country of origin of each locomotive
Operator names

Here you can set the display of railway company names.

  • Short: Abbreviation or short form of the name
  • Standard: commonly used name, partially translated to English
  • Complete: full name in local language