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Badenian IV e
German Reichsbahn class 3870
Germany | 1894 | 83 produced
Locomotive Magazine, October 1903

The IV e was developed for passenger and express trains in order to supplement or replace the older, predominantly four-coupled locomotives in this role. It was all about the steep Black Forest Railway, where the existing locomotives could no longer cope with the increasing number of passengers. Thus, from 1894, Grafenstaden from Alsace supplied six-coupled engines with four-cylinder compound engines. They were the first locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement in Germany, and they were also the first to use a de Glehn type engine on a locomotive with three coupled axles, i.e. with drive on two axles.

The running gear was built on an inside plate frame, while the bogie was designed with the outside frame known from Grafenstaden, despite the problematic running characteristics. The special feature of this engine rarely used in Germany was that the high-pressure cylinders were on the outside and the low-pressure cylinders on the inside, although the latter had a larger diameter. In order to achieve sufficient traction, the coupling wheels had a diameter of just 1,600 mm, which limited the speed to 90 km/h. During test runs, power of around 800 hp was measured and a 250-tonne train could be transported on the flat at 75 km/h.

Production comprised a total of 83 units up to 1901, which were also supplied by MBG Karlsruhe. Shortly after the turn of the century, the more powerful engines of classes II d and IV f pushed the IV e out of express service, and as a result it was only used in front of regular passenger trains. With the beginning of the First World War, decommissioning began, so that the Reichsbahn was able to take over 35 more units in 1925 and classify them as the class 3870. The last were retired in 1932. Today, none of the locomotives remain, as the only existing one kept as a cutaway model in a museum burned down with the museum during World War II.

ManufacturerGrafenstaden, MBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-6-0 (Ten-wheeler) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length57 ft 5 3/4 in
Wheelbase24 ft 5 5/16 in
Fixed wheelbase11 ft 9 3/4 in
Total wheelbase45 ft 6 1/16 in
Empty weight116,404 lbs
Service weight128,529 lbs
Adhesive weight89,287 lbs
Total weight222,887 lbs
Axle load29,762 lbs
Water capacity3,566 us gal
Fuel capacity8,818 lbs (coal)
Power sourcesteam
Indicated power799 hp (596 kW)
Optimal speed32 mph
Top speed56 mph
Starting effort15,992 lbf
with start valve19,190 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter63 in
Boiler pressure174 psi
Expansion typecompound
Cylindersfour, HP: 13 3/4 x 25 3/16 in
and LP: 21 5/8 x 25 3/16 in
Grate area22.6 sq ft
Firebox area120 sq ft
Tube heating area1,262.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,382.6 sq ft
Total heating area1,382.6 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
De Glehn compound
last changed: 01/2022

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