The reference for locomotives and railcars


Page views since 2023-01-26: 309879
North British class M 4-4-0
London & North Eastern classes D27, D28 and D31
Great Britain | 1877 | 60 produced
D27 No. 479
D27 No. 479
flickr/Historical Railway Images

Dugald Drummond undertook the first trials with a powerful 4-4-0 express locomotive of the North British Railway in the 1870s. These twelve examples were from Neilson & Co. and from North British's own workshops and were delivered from 1877 onwards. They were also known as the Abbotsford class after one of the examples, or the Waverley class, named after the Edinburgh train station from which they departed.

From 1884, a total of 48 similar locomotives were built in several batches, which were designed by William P. Reid. The cylinders and the coupled wheels had the same dimensions, but the boiler was larger and worked at a higher pressure. In 1902 and 1904, the older types were also rebuilt to resemble the newer locomotives.

With the introduction of the new class scheme at North British in 1913, all were assigned to Class M, which also included other locos. Five machines of the first type were retired before 1923, all others came with the London & North Eastern group. Due to their different origins, the LNER classified the locomotives in different classes. Engines built from 1884 became the D31, those converted in 1902 became the D27 and those converted in 1904 became the D28. While the converted ones were retired by 1926, the last example of the D31 even survived the founding of British Railways and was in service until 1953.

VariantD27, D28D31
Built1877-18791884, 1890-1895, 1898-1899
ManufacturerNeilson & Co., CowlairsCowlairs
Axle config4-4-0 (American) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 9 in43 ft 4 in
Length loco22 ft 1 in
Wheelbase22 ft 1 in
Fixed wheelbase9 ft
Service weight104,384 lbs102,816 lbs
Adhesive weight66,080 lbs68,880 lbs
Total weight176,065 lbs174,496 lbs
Axle load33,041 lbs34,944 lbs
Water capacity3,603 us gal
Fuel capacity12,320 lbs (coal)
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power550 hp (410 kW)600 hp (447 kW)
Optimal speed27 mph28 mph
Starting effort12,852 lbf13,770 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter78 in
Boiler pressure140 psi150 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 18 x 26 in
Grate area21 sq ft20 sq ft
Firebox area102.7 sq ft118 sq ft
Tube heating area978.3 sq ft1,148 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,081 sq ft1,266 sq ft
Total heating area1,081 sq ft1,266 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
Dugald Drummond
last changed: 06/2022

We use cookies to save the following settings:

  • selected navigation structure
  • selected language
  • preferred units
  • spelling of railway company names

If you refuse the use of cookies, the settings will only be retained for the current session and will be reset to the default values the next time you visit the site.

Display of units

Here you can set the desired unit system for the technical data.

  • Metric: Lengths in meters, weights in tonnes, and volumes in cubic meters
  • Imperial (UK): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in long tons and volumes in imperial gallons
  • Imperial (US): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in pounds, and volumes in US gallons
  • Individual: Depends on the country of origin of each locomotive
Operator names

Here you can set the display of railway company names.

  • Short: Abbreviation or short form of the name
  • Standard: commonly used name, partially translated to English
  • Complete: full name in local language